Advertisement

Yeast in Anthropogenic and Polluted Environments

  • Monika Novak Babič
  • Jerneja Zupančič
  • Nina Gunde-Cimerman
  • Polona ZalarEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

In modern society, people spend most of their time indoors and are exposed to a variety of selected air- and waterborne microorganisms that survive indoors despite sanitation chemicals, hygiene measures and occasional high temperatures. Although public health has focussed on bacteria and viruses, fungi are increasingly recognised as opportunistic infective agents. Past reports on indoor mycobiota have emphasised airborne filamentous fungi, while yeast and tap water as their transmission vector have been little investigated. Recent studies of wet indoor niches, like in kitchens and bathrooms, and particularly extreme environments inside household appliances, have revealed a diversity of yeast from the genera Debaryomyces, Meyerozyma, Pichia, Saccharomyces and Yarrowia. While many of these are not considered pathogenic for humans, special concern should be given to commonly isolated opportunistic yeast from the genera Candida, Naganishia and Rhodotorula and the black yeast Aureobasidium and Exophiala. The main characteristics of these yeasts include production of extracellular polysaccharides, degrading of cleaning agents and tolerance to high temperatures, high salt concentrations, and alkaline pH. These selected and enriched yeast species can form biofilms on synthetic and metal materials, where they can come into daily contact with people and pose the risk of infection, especially with immunocompromised people.

Keywords

Air Black yeast Household appliances Tap water Wet niches 

References

  1. Adams RI, Miletto M, Taylor JW, Bruns TD (2013a) The diversity and distribution of fungi on residential surfaces. PLoS One 8:e78866PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams RI, Miletto M, Taylor JW, Bruns TD (2013b) Dispersal in microbes: fungi in indoor air are dominated by outdoor air and show dispersal limitation at short distances. ISME J 7:1262–1273PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adams RI, Bateman AC, Bik HM, Meadow JF (2015a) Microbiota of the indoor environment: a meta-analysis. Microbiome 3:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adams RI, Bhangar S, Pasut W, Arens EA, Taylor JW, Lindow SE, Nazaroff WW, Bruns TD (2015b) Chamber bioaerosol study: outdoor air and human occupants as sources of indoor airborne microbes. PLoS One 10:e0128022PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Altunatmaz SS, Issa G, Aydin A (2012) Detection of airborne psychrotrophic bacteria and fungi in food storage refrigerators. Braz J Microbiol 43:1436–1443PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Amend AS, Seifert KA, Samson R, Bruns TD (2010) Indoor fungal composition is geographically patterned and more diverse in temperate zones than in the tropics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:13748–13753PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arvanitidou M, Kanellou K, Constantinides TC, Katsouyannopoulos V (1999) The occurrence of fungi in hospital and community potable waters. Lett Appl Microbiol 29:81–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ayanbimpe GM, Abbah VE, Ior CA (2012) Yeasts and yeast-like fungal contaminants of water used for domestic purposes in Jos, Nigeria. Microbiol Res 3:99–102Google Scholar
  9. Bennett JE (1998) Candidiasis. In: Isselbacher KJ, Braunwald E, Wilson JD, Martin JB, Fauci AS, Kasper DL (eds) Harrison’s principles of internal medicine. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 860–861Google Scholar
  10. Bennett DH, Apte MG, Wu X, Trout A, Faulkner D, Maddalena R, Sullivan D (2011) Indoor environmental quality and heating, ventilating, and air conditioning survey of small and medium size commercial buildings: field study: California Energy Commission, CEC-500-2011-043Google Scholar
  11. Berkholz P, Kobersky V, Stamminger R (2011) Comparative analysis of global consumer behaviour in the context of different manual dishwashing methods. Int J Consum Stud 37:46–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beumer RR, Kusumaningrum HD (2003) Kitchen hygiene in daily life. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 51:299–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bharathirajan R, Gopinathan R, Prakash M (2012) Microbial management of household cold storage exploratory study in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 1:50–55Google Scholar
  14. Biedunkiewicz A, Kowalska K, Schulz Ł, Stojek K, Dynowska M, Ejdys E, Sucharzewska E, Kubiak D (2014) Mycological monitoring of selected aquatic ecosystems in the context of epidemiological hazards. Drinking water. Ann Parasitol 60:191–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Blau H, Mussaffi H, Mei Zahav M, Prais D, Livne M, Czitron BM, Cohen HA (2007) Microbial contamination of nebulizers in the home treatment of cystic fibrosis. Child Care Health Dev 33:491–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brandi G, Sisti M, Paparini A, Gianfranceschi G, Schiavano GF, De Santi M, Santoni D, Magini V, Romano-Spica V (2007) Swimming pools and fungi: an environmental epidemiology survey in Italian indoor swimming facilities. Int J Environ Health Res 17:197–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brandt ME, Kauffman CA, Pappas PG, Iqbal N, Arthington-Skaggs BA, Lee-Yang W, Smith MT (2004) Fungemia caused by Zygoascus hellenicus in an allogeneic stem cell transplant recipient. J Clin Microbiol 42:3363–3365PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brunton WA (1995) Infection and hospital laundry. Lancet 345:1574–1575PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Catellani P, Miotti Scapin R, Alberghini L, Radu IL, Giaccone V (2014) Levels of microbial contamination of domestic refrigerators in Italy. Food Control 42:257–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cheong CD, Neumeister-Kemp HG (2005) Reducing airborne indoor fungi and fine particulates in carpeted Australian homes using intensive, high efficiency HEPA vacuuming. J Environ Health Res 4:3–16Google Scholar
  21. Cooper RI (2010) Microbial biofilms: case reviews of bacterial and fungal pathogens persisting on biomaterials and environmental substrata. In: Mendez-Vilas A (ed) Current research, technology and education topics in applied microbiology and microbial biotechnology. Formatex, Badajoz, Spain, pp 807–817Google Scholar
  22. Davenport RR (1980) Cold-tolerant yeasts and yeast-like microorganisms. In: Skinner FA, Passmore SM, Davenport RR (eds) Biology and activities of yeasts. Academic, New York, pp 215–230Google Scholar
  23. de Hoog GS, Zeng JS, Harrak MJ, Sutton DA (2006) Exophiala xenobiotica sp. nov., an opportunistic black yeast inhabiting environments rich in hydrocarbons. A van Leeuwenhoek 90:257–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. de Melo Pereira GV, Soccol VT, Pandey A, Medeiros AB, Andrade Lara JM, Gollo AL, Soccol CR (2014) Isolation, selection and evaluation of yeasts for use in fermentation of coffee beans by the wet process. Int J Food Microbiol 188:60–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Döğen A, Kaplan E, Oksüz Z, Serin MS, Ilkit M, de Hoog GS (2013) Dishwashers are a major source of human opportunistic yeast-like fungi in indoor environments in Mersin, Turkey. Med Mycol 5:493–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Doggett MS (2000) Characterisation of fungal biofilms within a municipal water distribution system. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:1249–1251PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dynowska M, Rosłan M, Góralska K (2006) Saccharomyces cerevisiae in respiratory system, digestive system and on the skin in humans. Acta Mycol 41:139–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ejdys E, Michalak J, Szewczyk KM (2009) Yeast-like fungi isolated from indoor air in school buildings and the surrounding outdoor air. Acta Mycol 44:97–107Google Scholar
  29. Esfarjani F, Khaksar R, Nasrabadi FM, Roustaee R, Alikhanian H, Khalaji N, Khaneghah AM, Hosseini H (2016) A preventative approach to promote food safety: bacterial contamination of domestic refrigerators. Br Food J 118:2076–2091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Evangelista SR, Miguel MG, Cordeiro Cde S, Silva CF, Pinheiro AC, Schwan RF (2014) Inoculation of starter cultures in a semi-dry coffee (Coffea arabica) fermentation process. Food Microbiol 44:87–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Evangelista SR, Miguel MG, Silva CF, Pinheiro AC, Schwan RF (2015) Microbiological diversity associated with the spontaneous wet method of coffee fermentation. Int J Food Microbiol 210:102–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Falkowski J, Jakubowska B, Janda K (2002) The evaluation of thermophilic fungi in raw coffee beans. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 53:277–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Fijan S, Turk SŠ (2012) Hospital textiles, are they a possible vehicle for healthcare-associated infections? Int J Environ Res Public Health 9:3330–3343PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Flannigan B, Samson RA, Miller JD (2001) Microorganisms in home and indoor work environments: diversity, health impact, investigation and control. CRC Press, London and New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Flores GE, Bates ST, Caporaso JG, Lauber CL, Leff JW, Knight R, Fierer N (2013) Diversity, distribution and sources of bacteria in residential kitchens. Environ Microbiol 15:588–596PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Frankova E, Horecka M (1995) Filamentous soil fungi and unidentified bacteria in drinking water from wells and water mains near Bratislava. Microbiol Res 150:311–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fujimura KE, Johnson CC, Ownby DR, Cox MJ, Brodie EL, Havstad SL, Zoratti EM, Woodcroft KJ, Bobbitt KR, Wegienka G, Boushey HA, Lynch SV (2010) Man's best friend? The effect of pet ownership on house dust microbial communities. J Allergy Clin Immunol 126:410–412PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gargouri B, Mhiri N, Karray F, Aloui F, Sayadi S (2015) Isolation and characterization of hydrocarbon-degrading yeast strains from petroleum contaminated industrial wastewater. Biomed Res Int. doi: 10.1155/2015/929424
  39. Gattlen J, Amberg C, Zinn M, Mauclaire L (2010) Biofilms isolated from washing machines from three continents and their tolerance to a standard detergent. Biofouling 26:873–882PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Glushakova AM, Zheltikova TM, Chernov IY (2004) Groups and sources of yeasts in house dust. Microbiology 73:94–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Godwin SL, Chen FC, Chambers E IV, Coppings R, Chambers D (2007) A comprehensive evaluation of temperatures within home refrigerators. Food Protect Trends 27:168–173Google Scholar
  42. Goksugur N, Karabay O, Kocoglu E (2006) Mycological flora of the Hammams, traditional Turkish bath. Mycoses 49:411–414PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Górny RL, Dutkiewicz J (2002) Bacterial and fungal aerosols in indoor environment in Central and Eastern European countries. Ann Agric Environ Med 9:17–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Gostinčar C, Grube M, Gunde-Cimerman N (2011) Evolution of fungal pathogens in domestic environments? Fungal Biol 115:1008–1018PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Göttlich E, van der Lubbe W, Lange B, Fiedler S, Melchert I, Reifenrath M, Flemming HC, de Hoog S (2002) Fungal flora in groundwater-derived public drinking water. Int J Hyg Environ Health 205:269–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Grabinska-Loniewska A, Konillowicz-Kowalska T, Wardzynska G, Boryn K (2007) Occurrence of fungi in water distribution system. Pol J Environ Stud 16:539–547Google Scholar
  47. Gray FN (2014) Pathogen control in drinking water. In: Percival LS, Yates VM, Williams D, Chalmers R, Gray N (eds) Microbiology of waterborne diseases. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 537–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gümral R, Özhak-Baysan B, Tümgör A, Saraçlı MA, Yıldıran ŞT, Ilkit M, Zupančič J, Novak Babič M, Gunde-Cimerman N, Zalar P, de Hoog GS (2016) Dishwashers provide a selective extreme environment for human-opportunistic yeast-like fungi. Fungal Divers 76:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hageskal G, Knutsen AK, Gaustad P, de Hoog GS, Skaar I (2006) The diversity and significance of mold species in Norwegian drinking water. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:7586–7593PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hamada N (2002) Fungal contamination in washing machines. Antibact Antifungal Agent 30:703–708Google Scholar
  51. Hamada N, Abe N (2009) Physiological characteristics of 13 common fungal species in bathrooms. Mycoscience 50:421–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hamada N, Fujita T (2000) Growth rate of fungi in bathrooms – experimental survey. Mycoscience 41:297–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Heinrichs G, Hübner I, Schmidt KC, de Hoog GS, Haase G (2013a) Analysis of black fungal biofilms occurring at domestic water taps (I): compositional analysis using Tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing. Mycopathologia 175:387–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Heinrichs G, Hübner I, Schmidt KC, de Hoog GS, Haase G (2013b) Analysis of black fungal biofilms occurring at domestic water taps (II): potential routes of entry. Mycopathologia 175:387–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hinzelin F, Block JC (1985) Yeasts and filamentous fungi in drinking water. Environ Technol Lett 6:101–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Horner WE, Worthan AG, Morey PR (2004) Air- and dustborne mycoflora in houses free of water damage and fungal growth. Appl Environ Microbiol 70:6394–6400PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hospodsky D, Qian J, Nazaroff WW, Yamamoto N, Bibby K, Rismani-Yazdi H, Peccia J (2012) Human occupancy as a source of indoor airborne bacteria. PLoS One 7:e34867PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Iacobucci E (2004) Machine for American style coffee for use on aircraft. United States Patent US006779435B1:22Google Scholar
  59. Inácio J, Daniel HM (2017) Commensalism: the case of the human zymobiome. In: Buzzini P, Lachance MA, Yurkov AM (eds) Yeasts in natural ecosystems: ecology. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 211–228Google Scholar
  60. Isola D, Selbmann L, de Hoog GS, Fenice M, Onofri S, Prenafeta-Boldú FX, Zucconi L (2013) Isolation and screening of black fungi as degraders of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons. Mycopathologia 175:369–379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jadhav S, Sahasrabudhe T, Kalley V, Gandham N (2013) The microbial colonization profile of respiratory devices and the significance of the role of disinfection: a blinded study. J Clin Diagn Res 7:1021–1026PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. James SJ, Evans J, James C (2008) A review of the performance of domestic refrigerators. J Food Eng 87:2–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jay MJ (1996) Modern food microbiology. Chapman and Hall, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Jeon YS, Chun J, Kim BS (2013) Identification of household bacterial community and analysis of species shared with human microbiome. Curr Microbiol 67:557–563PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kadaifciler DG, Ökten S, Sen B (2013) Mycological contamination in dental unit waterlines in Istanbul, Turkey. Braz J Microbiol 44:977–981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kennedy J, Jackson V, Blair IS, McDowell DA, Cowan C, Bolton DJ (2005) Food safety knowledge of consumers and the microbiological and temperature status of their refrigerators. J Food Prot 68:1421–1430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Khan HAA, Karuppayil SM (2012) Fungal pollution of indoor environments and its management. Saudi J Biol Sci 19:405–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kinsey GC, Paterson RR, Kelley J (1999) Methods for the determination of filamentous fungi in treated and untreated waters. J Appl Microbiol 85:214–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Klepeis NE, Nelson WC, Ott WR, Robinson JP, Tsang AM, Switzer P, Behar JV, Hern SC, Engelmann WH (2001) The National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS): a resource for assessing exposure to environmental pollutants. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 11:231–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Levy SB (2001) Antibacterial household products: cause for concern. Emerg Infect Dis 7:512–515PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Li A, Liu Z, Zhu X, Liu Y, Wangb Q (2010) The effect of air-conditioning parameters and deposition dust on microbial growth in supply air ducts. Energ Buildings 42:449–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lian X, de Hoog GS (2010) Indoor wet cells harbour melanized agents of cutaneous infection. Med Mycol 48:622–628PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lotrakul P, Deenarn P, Prasongsuk S, Punnapayak H (2009) Isolation of Aureobasidium pullulans from bathroom surfaces and their antifungal activity against some Aspergilli. Afr J Microbiol Res 3:253–257Google Scholar
  74. Maktabi S, Jamnejad A, Faramarzian K (2013) Contamination of household refrigerators by Listeria species in Ahvaz, Iran. Jundishapur J Microbiol 6:301–305Google Scholar
  75. Margesin R, Gander S, Zacke G, Gounot AM, Schinner F (2003) Hydrocarbon degradation and enzyme activities of cold-adapted bacteria and yeasts. Extremophiles 7:451–458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Masoud W, Cesar LB, Jespersen L, Jakobsen M (2004) Yeast involved in fermentation of Coffea arabica in East Africa determined by genotyping and by direct denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Yeast 21:549–556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Matos T, de Hoog GS, de Boer AG, de Crom I, Haase G (2002) High prevalence of the neurotrope Exophiala dermatitidis and related oligotrophic black yeasts in sauna facilities. Mycoses 45:373–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. McGrath JJ, Wong WC, Cooley JD, Straus DC (1999) Continually measured fungal profiles in sick building syndrome. Curr Microbiol 38:33–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Meklin T, Husman T, Vepsäläinen A, Vahteristo M, Koivisto J, Halla-Aho J, Hyvärinen A, Moschandreas D, Nevalainen A (2002) Indoor air microbes and respiratory symptoms of children in moisture damaged and reference schools. Indoor Air 12:175–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Miceli HM, Diaz AJ, Lee AS (2011) Emerging opportunistic yeast infections. Lancet Infect Dis 11:142–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Naik SN, Goud VV, Rout KP, Dalai AK (2010) Production of first and second generation biofuels: a comprehensive review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 14:578–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Nanbakhsh H, Diba K, Hazarti K (2004) Study of fungal contamination of indoor public swimming pools. Iran J Public Health 33:60–65Google Scholar
  83. Nedret Koc A, Kocagöz S, Erdem F, Gündüz Z (2002) Outbreak of nosocomial fungemia caused by Candida glabrata. Mycoses 45:470–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Nishimura K, Miyaji M (1982) Studies on a saprophyte of Exophiala dermatitidis isolated from a humidifier. Mycopathologia 77:173–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Noris F, Siegel JA, Kinney KA (2011) Evaluation of HVAC filters as a sampling mechanism for indoor microbial communities. Atmos Environ 45:338–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Novak Babič M, Zalar P, Ženko B, Džeroski S, Gunde-Cimerman N (2015) Candida and Fusarium species known as opportunistic human pathogens from customer-accessible parts of residential washing machines. Fungal Biol 119:95–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Novak Babič M, Zalar P, Ženko B, Džeroski S, Gunde-Cimerman N (2016) Yeasts and yeast-like fungi in tap water and groundwater, and their transmission to household appliances. Fungal Ecol 20:30–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. NSF The Public Health and Safety Organization (2013) International Household germ study. https://www.nsf.org/newsroom_pdf/2013_germ_study_FOR-WEB-ONLY.pdf. Accessed 21 Nov 2016
  89. Ojima M, Toshima Y, Koya E, Ara K, Kawai S, Ueda N (2002) Bacterial contamination of Japanese households and related concern about sanitation. Int J Environ Health Res 12:41–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pal A, Labuza TP, Diez-Gonzalez F (2008) Shelf life evaluation for ready-to-eat sliced uncured turkey breast and cured ham under probable storage conditions based on Listeria monocytogenes and psychrotroph growth. Int J Food Microbiol 126:49–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Peckham D, Williams K, Wynne S, Denton M, Pollard K, Barton R (2016) Fungal contamination of nebuliser devices used by people with cystic fibrosis. J Cyst Fibros 15:74–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Peng R, Xiong A, Xue Y, Fu XY, Gao F, Zhao W, Tian YS, Yao QH (2008) Microbial biodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. FEMS Microbiol Rev 32:927–955PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Percival SL, Knapp JS, Wales DS, Edyvean RGJ (1999) The effect of turbulent flow and surface roughness on biofilm formation in drinking water. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 22:152–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Pereira VJ, Basîlio MC, Fernandes D, Domingues M, Paiva JM, Benoliel MJ, Crespo MT, San Romão MV (2010) Occurrence of filamentous fungi and yeasts in three different drinking water sources. Water Res 43:3813–3819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Prenafeta-Boldú FX, Summerbell R, de Hoog GS (2006) Fungi growing on aromatic hydrocarbons: biotechnology’s unexpected encounter with biohazard? FEMS Microbiol Rev 30:109–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Qian J, Hospodsky D, Yamamoto N, Nazaroff WW, Peccia J (2012) Size-resolved emission rates of airborne bacteria and fungi in an occupied classroom. Indoor Air 22:339–351PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sabirova JS, Haddouche R, Van Bogaert I, Mulaa F, Verstraete W, Timmis K, Schmidt-Dannert C, Nicaud J, Soetaert W (2011) The ‘LipoYeasts’ project: using the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica in combination with specific bacterial genes for the bioconversion of lipids, fats and oils into high-value products. Microb Biotechnol 4:47–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Salonen A, Ruokola AL (1969) Mycoflora of the Finnish “sauna” (bath-house). Mycopathologia 38:327–336Google Scholar
  99. Samah AM, Shimaa RH, Al-Wasify RS (2014) Relative diversity of filamentous fungi and yeasts in groundwater and their correlation to fecal pollution indicators and physicochemical parameters. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 3:905–919Google Scholar
  100. Sammon BN, Harrower MK, Fabbro DL, Reed RH (2010) Incidence and distribution of microfungi in a treated municipal water supply system in sub-tropical Australia. Int J Environ Res Public Health 7:1597–1611PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Scott E (2000) Relationship between cross-contamination and the transmission of foodborne pathogens in the home. Pediatr Infect Dis J 19:111–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Scott E, Bloomfield SF (1990) The survival and transfer of microbial contamination via cloths, hands and utensils. J Appl Bacteriol 68:271–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Seyedmousavi S, Guillot J, Tolooe A, Verweij PE, de Hoog GS (2015) Neglected fungal zoonoses: hidden threats to man and animals. Clin Microbiol Infect 21:416–425PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Shah CP, Krajden S, Kane J, Summerbell RC (1988) Tinea corporis caused by Microsporum canis: report of a nosocomial outbreak. Eur J Epidemiol 4:33–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Shaker BK, Sharif FM (2012) Isolation and identification of some fungi from Al-Sader Water Treatment Plant, Baghdad, Iraq. Al-Mustansiriyah J Sci 3:1–12Google Scholar
  106. Shumin Y, Na N, Zhaoyanga X, Jinglia T (2012) Screening and identification of halotolerant yeast for hydrocarbon degrading and its properties studies. Afr J Microbiol 6:1819–1828Google Scholar
  107. Silva CF, Batista LR, Abreu LM et al (2008) Succession of bacterial and fungal communities during natural coffee (Coffea arabica) fermentation. Food Microbiol 25:951–957PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Simoes SA, Junior DPL, Hahn RC (2011) Fungal microbiota in air-conditioning installed in both adult and neonatal intensive treatment units and their impact in two university hospitals of the central western region, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Mycopathologia 172:109–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Sinclair RG, Gerba CP (2011) Microbial contamination in kitchens and bathrooms of rural Cambodian village households. Lett Appl Microbiol 52:144–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Stapleton K, Hill K, Day K, Perry JD, Dean JR (2013) The potential impact of washing machines on laundry malodour generation. Lett Appl Microbiol 56:299–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Vicente AV, Attili-Angelis D, Pie MR, Queiroz-Telles F, Cruz LM, Najafzadeh MJ, de Hoog GS, Zhao J, Pizzirani-Kleiner A (2008) Environmental isolation of black yeast-like fungi involved in human infection. Stud Mycol 61:137–144PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Vilanova C, Iglesias A, Porcar M (2015) The coffee-machine bacteriome: biodiversity and colonisation of the wasted coffee tray leach. Sci Rep 5:17163PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Vilela DM, Pereira GV, Silva CF, Batista LR, Schwan RF (2010) Molecular ecology and polyphasic characterization of the microbiota associated with semi-dry processed coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Food Microbiol 27:1128–1135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Yamaguchi MU, Pontelllo Rampazo RC, Yamada-Ogatta SF, Vataru Nakamura C, Ueda-Nakamura T, Dias Filho BP (2007) Yeasts and filamentous fungi in bottled mineral water and tap water from municipal supplies. Braz Arch Biol Technol 50:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Zalar P, Novak M, de Hoog GS, Gunde-Cimerman N (2011) Dishwashers – a man-made ecological niche accommodating human opportunistic fungal pathogens. Fungal Biol 115:997–1007PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Zhao J, Zeng J, de Hoog GS, Attili-Angelis D, Prenafeta-Boldú FX (2010) Isolation and identification of black yeasts by enrichment on atmospheres of monoaromatic hydrocarbons. Microb Ecol 60:149–156PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Zupančič J, Novak Babič M, Zalar P, Gunde-Cimerman N (2016) The black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis and other selected opportunistic human fungal pathogens spread from dishwashers to kitchens. PLoS One 11:e0148166PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Monika Novak Babič
    • 1
  • Jerneja Zupančič
    • 1
  • Nina Gunde-Cimerman
    • 1
  • Polona Zalar
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biology, Biotechnical FacultyUniversity of LjubljanaLjubljanaSlovenia

Personalised recommendations