Sustainability and Mining: The Case of the Kola Peninsula
This chapter discusses sustainability issues related to two mining companies – JSC “Apatit” and JSC “North-Western Phosphorous Company” – in the towns of Kirovsk and Apatity in the Murmansk region of Russia. These companies have been exploiting apatite-nepheline ore deposits in Khibiny, the largest mountain massif on the Kola Peninsula. The main question posed here is how knowledge about environmental, economic, cultural and social values decision making and knowledge systems are applied in decision making. A case study of Kirovsk and Apatity was undertaken to further understand the local planning regime and sustainability in Kirovsk and Apatity, including environmental integrity, indigenous groups and their subsistence economy, community benefits, effective engagement, and mining companies’ self-reporting on sustainability. The main challenges to sustainable mining are identified for the three major stakeholder groups – mining companies, local communities, and government authorities. The chapter concludes that perceptions of sustainable development in these Russian industrial towns are shaped by the dominant role mining industry plays on the Kola Peninsula in influencing the quality of life of local people and their perceptions of environmental concerns, including questions of pollution and landscape aesthetics.
KeywordsArctic mining and sustainability Social license to operate Local planning regimes Environmental integrity Kola Peninsula Indigenous people
- Acron. (2016). Acron homepage. Retrieved 17 Feb 2016, from http://www.acron.ru/en/sustainability/environment/.
- Armitage, D. R., Plummer, R., Berkes, F., Arthur, R. I., Charles, A. T., Davidson-Hunt, I. J., Diduck, A. P., Doubleday, N., Johnson, D. S., Marschke, M., McConney, P., Pinkerton, E., & Wollenberg, E. (2008). Adaptive co-management for social-ecological complexity. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 7, 95–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Boutilier, R.G., Thomson, I. (2011). Modeling and measuring the social license to operate: Fruits of a dialogue between theory and practice. Social license.com. Retrieved 17 Feb 2016 from http://socialicense.com/publications/Modelling%20and%20Measuring%20the%20SLO.pdf.
- Decree. (2014). Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of 2907.2014. No. 1398-r. Retrieved 17 Mar 2015, from http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&nd=102356578&intelsearch=%F0%E0%F1%EF%EE%F0%FF%E6%E5%ED%E8%E5+%EF%F0%E0%E2%E8%F2%E5%EB%FC%F1%F2%E2%E0+%D0%D4+%EE%F2+2907.2014+%B9+1398-%F0.
- Didyk, V. (2015). Development challenges for a single-industry mining town in the Russian Arctic: The case of Kirovsk, Murmansk Region. Russian Analytical Digest, 172, 2–6.Google Scholar
- Gushchina I. A., Polozhentseva O. A. (2012). Material and social well-beings factors of social adaptation of mono-towns’ population//“ The North and the Market: Forming the Economic Order”. 2012. No.2, p. 64.Google Scholar
- Kirovsk. (2011). Kirovsk municipality: “Strategy of socio-economic development of the Kirovsk municipality up to year of 2020”. Approved by decision of Council of deputies as of 20.12.2011. No. 85. Retrieved 13 Apr 2015, from http://kirovsk.ru/files/npa/sovet/2011/85/strateg_2020.pdf.
- Kokko, K., Buanes, A., Koivorova, T., Masloboev, V., & Petterson, P. (2015). Sustainable mining, local communities and environmental regulation. Barents Studies: Peoples, Economics and Politics, 2(1), 50–81.Google Scholar
- Leach, M., Scoones, I., & Stirling, A. (2010). Dynamic sustainabilities: Technology, environment, social justice. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
- Martus, E. (2016). Contested policymaking in Russia: Industry, environment, and the “best available technology” debate. Post-Soviet Affairs, 1–22.Google Scholar
- MEM. (2016). Mining: part of sustainable development in British Columbia. Canada: The Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM) and the Mining Association of British Columbia (MABC). Retrieved from http://www.empr.gov.bc.ca/mining/sustainability/Pages/default.aspx.Google Scholar
- Mironov, A. (2015). The truth about the six million dollars. Khibinskiy Vestnik, 15, 121.Google Scholar
- Municipalities of the Murmansk region. (2014). Statistical yearbook. Murmanskstat – Territorial body of the Federal Service of state statistics in Murmansk region, Murmansk, 2014.Google Scholar
- NWPC. (2016). North-Western phosphorous company homepage. Retrieved 17 Feb 2016 from http://www.szfk.ru/en/.
- O’Faircheallaigh, C. (2017). Shaping projects, shaping impacts: Community-controlled impact assessments and negotiated agreements. Third World Quarterly, 1–17.Google Scholar
- PhosAgro. (2016). PhosAgro homepage. Retrieved 17 Feb 2016 from https://www.phosagro.com/about/holding/item636.php.
- Riabova L., Didyk V. (2014). Social license to operate for mining companies in the Russian Arctic: Two cases in the Murmansk region. Briefing note. ArcticYearbook2014. Http://www.arcticyearbook.com/index.php/briefingnotes2014/120-social-license-to-operate-for-mining-companies-in-the-russian-arctic-two-cases-in-the-murmansk-region.
- Riabova, L.A., Didyk, V.V. (2015). Sotsial’maya litsenziya na deyatel’nost’ resursodobyvayushchikh kompaniy kak novyi instrument munitsipal’nogo razvitiya [Social license to operate for the resource extraction companies as a new instrument of municipal development]. Public Administration Issues, Moscow, (3), 61–82.Google Scholar
- Vik, J., Bay-Larsen, I., & Aasetre, J. (2011). Bruk og vern -brytninger om demokrati. In M. S. Haugen & E. P. Stræte (Eds.), Rurale brytninger (pp. 180–202). Trondheim: Tapir forlag.Google Scholar
- Voytekhovskiy YU. L., Miroshnichenko, T. A. (2014). ABCG heritage – Arctic biological, cultural and geological heritage and FODD – Fennoscandian Ore Deposit Database. Case studies of international cooperation in the Arctic zone. Vestnik of the Kola Science Centre of RAS, (2), 34–38.Google Scholar
- WCED. (1987). Our Common Future, World Commission on Environment and Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Webler, T. (1995). “Right” discourse in citizens participation: An evaluative yardstick. In O. Renn, T. Webler, & P. Wiedemann (Eds.), Fairness and competence in citizens participation -evaluating models for environmental discourse. London: Kluwer Academic Press.Google Scholar