Team and Time Within Project-Based Organizations: Insights from Creative Industries



By taking together time and team as key themes to analyze project-based organizations, this chapter attempts to shed more light on the diversity literature by focusing on the role of past work experience diversity since experience plays a pivotal role in models of work performance and behavior.Specifically, within this chapter, authors investigate the importance of work experience diversity in two project-based creative contexts: music and TV drama series productions.


  1. Adkins, C. L. (1995). Previous work experience and organizational socialization: A longitudinal examination. Academy of Management Journal, 38(3), 839–862.Google Scholar
  2. Ancona, D. G., & Caldwell, D. F. (1992). Demography and design: Predictors of new product team performance. Organization science, 3(3), 321–341.Google Scholar
  3. Bakker, R. M. (2010). Taking stock of temporary organizational forms: A systematic review and research agenda. International Journal of Management Reviews, 12(4), 466–486.Google Scholar
  4. Bechky, B. A. (2006). Gaffers, gofers, and grips: Role-based coordination in temporary organizations. Organization Science, 17(1), 3–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bercovitz, J., & Feldman, M. (2011). The mechanisms of collaboration in inventive teams: Composition, social networks, and geography. Research Policy, 40(1), 81–93.Google Scholar
  6. Bresnen, M., Goussevskaia, A., & Swan, J. (2004). Embedding new management knowledge in project-based organizations. Organization studies, 25(9), 1535–1555.Google Scholar
  7. Bunderson, J. S., & Sutcliffe, K. M. (2002). Comparing alternative conceptualizations of functional diversity in management teams: Process and performance effects. Academy of management journal, 45(5), 875–893.Google Scholar
  8. Campbell, J. P. (1990). The role of theory in industrial and organizational psychology. In M. D. D. L. M. Hough (Ed.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed), Vol. 1, (pp. 39–73). Palo Alto, CA, US: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  9. Chen, G. (2005). Newcomer adaptation in teams: Multilevel antecedents and outcomes. Academy of Management Journal, 48(1), 101–116.Google Scholar
  10. De Vany, A.S. (2002). Contracting in the movies when ‘nobody knows anything’: The careers, pay and contracts of motion picture directors. In Conference of the Association for Cultural Economics International, Rotterdam.Google Scholar
  11. DeFillippi, R. J., & Arthur, M. B. (1998). Paradox in project-based enterprise: The case of film making. California management review, 40(2), 125–139.Google Scholar
  12. Di Vincenzo, F., & Mascia, D. (2012). Social capital in project-based organizations: Its role, structure, and impact on project performance. International Journal of Project Management, 30(1), 5–14.Google Scholar
  13. Dokko, G., Wilk, S.L., & Rothbard, N.P. (2009). Unpacking prior experience: How career history affects job performance. Organization Science, 20, 51–68.Google Scholar
  14. DuBois, D., & McKee, A. S. (1994, May). Facets of work experience. In 9th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Nashville, TN.Google Scholar
  15. Ebbers, J. J., & Wijnberg, N. M. (2009). Latent organizations in the film industry: Contracts, rewards and resources. Human Relations, 62(7), 987–1009.Google Scholar
  16. Engwall, M. (2003). No project is an island: linking projects to history and context. Research policy, 32(5), 789–808.Google Scholar
  17. Engwall, M., & Westling, G. (2004). Peripety in an R&D drama: capturing a turnaround in project dynamics. Organization Studies, 25(9), 1557–1578.Google Scholar
  18. Finkelstein, S., & Hambrick, D. C. (1996). Strategic leadership: Top executives and their effects on organizations. South-Western Pub.Google Scholar
  19. Flood, P. C., Fong, C.-M., Smith, K. G., O’Regan, P., Moore, S., & Morley, M. (1997). Top management teams and pioneering: a resource-based view. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 8(3), 291–306.Google Scholar
  20. Goodman, R. A., & Goodman, L. P. (1976). Some management issues in temporary systems: A study of professional development and manpower-the theater case. Administrative science quarterly, 494–501.Google Scholar
  21. Grabher, G. (2004a). Learning in projects, remembering in networks? Communality, sociality, and connectivity in project ecologies. European urban and regional studies, 11(2), 103–123.Google Scholar
  22. Grabher, G. (2004b). Temporary architectures of learning: Knowledge governance in project ecologies. Organization studies, 25(9), 1491–1514.Google Scholar
  23. Hackman, J. R. (2002). Leading teams: Setting the stage for great performances. Harvard Business Press.Google Scholar
  24. Hobday, M. (2000). The project-based organisation: an ideal form for managing complex products and systems? Research Policy, 29(7–8), 871–893.Google Scholar
  25. Hofmann, D. A., Jacobs, R., & Baratta, J. E. (1993). Dynamic criteria and the measurement of change. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(2), 194.Google Scholar
  26. Hofmann, D. A., Jacobs, R., & Gerras, S. J. (1992). Mapping individual performance over time. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77(2), 185.Google Scholar
  27. Horwitz, S. K., & Horwitz, I. B. (2007). The Effects of Team Diversity on Team Outcomes: A Meta-Analytic Review of Team Demography. Journal of Management, 33(6), 987–1015. doi:  10.1177/0149206307308587.
  28. Huckman, R. S., & Pisano, G. P. (2006). The firm specificity of individual performance: Evidence from cardiac surgery. Management Science, 52(4), 473–488.Google Scholar
  29. Jackson, S. E., Stone, V. K., & Alvarez, E. B. (1992). Socialization amidst diversity-the impact of demographics on work team oldtimers and newcomers. Research in Organizational Behavior, 15, 45–109.Google Scholar
  30. Jones, C., & Lichtenstein, B. B. (2008). Temporary inter-organizational projects: How temporal and social embeddedness enhance coordination and manage uncertainty. The Oxford handbook of inter-organizational relations, 231–255.Google Scholar
  31. Kochan, T., Bezrukova, K., Ely, R., Jackson, S., Joshi, A., Jehn, K., ... & Thomas, D. (2003). The effects of diversity on business performance: Report of the diversity research network. Human resource management, 42(1), 3–21.Google Scholar
  32. Lance, C. E., Hedge, J. W., & Alley, W. E. (1989). Joint relationships of task proficiency with aptitude, experience, and task difficulty: A cross-level, interactional study. Human Performance, 2(4), 249–272.Google Scholar
  33. Lundin, R. A., & Söderholm, A. (1995). A theory of the temporary organization. Scandinavian Journal of management, 11(4), 437–455.Google Scholar
  34. Lundin, R. A., & Steinthórsson, R. S. (2003). Studying organizations as temporary. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 19(2), 233–250.Google Scholar
  35. March, J. G. (1991). Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. Organization Science, 2(1), 71–87.Google Scholar
  36. McCauley, C. D., Ruderman, M. N., Ohlott, P. J., & Morrow, J. E. (1994). Assessing the developmental components of managerial jobs. Journal of applied psychology, 79(4), 544.Google Scholar
  37. McDaniel, M. A., Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1988). Job experience correlates of job performance. Journal of applied psychology, 73(2), 327.Google Scholar
  38. Miles, M. B. (1964). On temporary systems. I: MB Miles (red.) Innovation in Education.Google Scholar
  39. Miller, D., & Shamsie, J. (2001). Learning across the life cycle: Experimentation and performance among the Hollywood studio heads. Strategic Management Journal, 22(8), 725–745.Google Scholar
  40. Morris, P. W., & Hough, G. H. (1987). The anatomy of major projects: A study of the reality of project management.Google Scholar
  41. Nasta, L., Pirolo, L, Wikstrom, P. (2016). Diversity in creative teams: a theoretical framework and a research methodology for the analysis of the music industry. Creative Industries Journal, 9(2), 97–106.Google Scholar
  42. Perretti, F., & Negro, G. (2007). Mixing genres and matching people: a study in innovation and team composition in Hollywood. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 28(5), 563–586.Google Scholar
  43. Pich, M. T., Loch, C. H., & Meyer, A. D. (2002). On uncertainty, ambiguity, and complexity in project management. Management science, 48(8), 1008–1023.Google Scholar
  44. Pinto, J. K., & Kharbanda, O. P. (1995). Lessons for an accidental profession. Business Horizons, 38(2), 41–50.Google Scholar
  45. Pinto, J. K., & Prescott, J. E. (1990). Planning and tactical factors in the project implementation process. Journal of Management studies, 27(3), 305–327.Google Scholar
  46. Pinto, J. K., & Rouhiainen, P. J. (2001). Projеct critical success factor. Building customer-based projеct organisations.Google Scholar
  47. Quinones, M. A., Ford, J. K., & Teachout, M. S. (1995). The relationship between work experience and job performance: A conceptual and meta-analytic review. Personnel Psychology, 48(4), 887–910.Google Scholar
  48. Saunders, C. S., & Ahuja, M. K. (2006). Are all distributed teams the same? Differentiating between temporary and ongoing distributed teams. Small Group Research, 37(6), 662–700.Google Scholar
  49. Schippers, M. C., Den Hartog, D. N., Koopman, P. L., & Wienk, J. A. (2003). Diversity and team outcomes: The moderating effects of outcome interdependence and group longevity and the mediating effect of reflexivity. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24(6), 779–802.Google Scholar
  50. Schmidt, F. L., Hunter, J. E., & Outerbridge, A. N. (1986). Impact of job experience and ability on job knowledge, work sample performance, and supervisory ratings of job-performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(3).Google Scholar
  51. Schwab, A., & Miner, A. S. (2008). Learning in hybrid-project systems: The effects of project performance on repeated collaboration. Academy of Management Journal, 51(6), 1117–1149.Google Scholar
  52. Shenhar, A. J., & Dvir, D. (1996). Toward a typological theory of project management. Research policy, 25(4), 607–632.Google Scholar
  53. Skilton, P. F., & Bravo, J. (2008). Do social capital and project type vary across career paths in project-based work? The case of Hollywood personal assistants. Career Development International, 13(5), 381–401.Google Scholar
  54. Sydow, J., & Staber, U. (2002). The institutional embeddedness of project networks: the case of content production in German television. Regional Studies, 36(3), 215–227.Google Scholar
  55. Taylor, A., & Greve, H. R. (2006). Superman or the fantastic four? Knowledge combination and experience in innovative teams. Academy of Management Journal, 49(4), 723–740.Google Scholar
  56. Terrion, J. L., & Ashforth, B. E. (2002). From ‘I’to ‘we’: The role of putdown humor and identity in the development of a temporary group. Human Relations, 55(1), 55–88.Google Scholar
  57. Tesluk, P. E., & Jacobs, R. R. (1998). Toward an integrated model of work experience. Personnel Psychology, 51(2), 321–355.Google Scholar
  58. Tyssen, A. K., Wald, A., & Spieth, P. (2013). Leadership in temporary organizations: A review of leadership theories and a research agenda. Project Management Journal, 44(6), 52–67.Google Scholar
  59. Verona, G., & Ravasi, D. (1999). Core competence per sviluppare nuovi prodotti con continuità. Economia & Management, 3, 1999.Google Scholar
  60. Vicentini, F. (2013). Does Individual Flexibility Matter in Project-Based Organizations? LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.Google Scholar
  61. Vicentini, F., & Boccardelli, P. (2014). Team composition and project-based organizations: New perspectives for human resource management. In Russ M. (Ed.), Management, valuation, and risk for human capital and human assets: Building the foundation for a multi-disciplinary, multi-level theory, 37–58.Google Scholar
  62. Vicentini, F., & Boccardelli, P. (2016). Career diversity and project performance in the Italian television industry. Journal of Business Research, 69(7), 2380–2387.Google Scholar
  63. Whitley, R. (2006). Project-based firms: new organizational form or variations on a theme? Industrial and corporate change, 15(1), 77–99.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.LINK Campus UniversityRomeItaly
  2. 2.LUISS Guido Carli UniversityRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations