Advertisement

Etiology of Urolithiasis

  • Said Abdallah Al-Mamari
Chapter
Part of the In Clinical Practice book series (ICP)

Abstract

Kidney stone disease is a complex disorder associated with a multitude of possible causes, among which metabolic and genetic components occupy an important position, being represented by hyperoxaluria, hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, hyperuricemia, renal tubular acidosis, hypophosphatemia, cystinuria, etc. Other causes include: urinary infections, impaired drainage (i.e. obstruction), post-bariatric surgery, foreign bodies, drugs, etc. In many cases these factors are intermingling, necessitating a comprehensive clinical evaluation of the patient.

References

  1. 1.
    Zerwekh JE, Reed-Gitomer BY, Pak CY. Pathogenesis of hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2002;31(4):869–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jungers P, Joly D, Blanchard A. Inherited monogenic kidney stone diseases: recent diagnostic and therapeutic advances. Nephrol Ther. 2008;4(4):231–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Monico CG, Milliner DS. Genetic determinants of urolithiasis. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2011;8(3):151–62.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Penido MG, de Sousa Tavares M. Pediatric primary urolithiasis: symptoms, medical management and prevention strategies. World J Nephrol. 2015;4(4):444–54.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Amancio L, Fedrizzi M, Bresolin NL, Penido MG. Pediatric urolithiasis: experience at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. J Bras Nefrol. 2016;38(1):90–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Eisner BH, Sheth S, Dretler SP, et al. Abnormalities of 24-hour urine composition in first-time and recurrent stone-formers. Urology. 2012;80(4):776–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ahmad I, Pansota MS, Tariq M, Tabassum SA. Frequency of metabolic abnormalities in urinary stones patients. Pak J Med Sci. 2013;29(6):1363–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Spivacow FR, del Valle EE, Negri AL, et al. Biochemical diagnosis in 3040 kidney stone formers in Argentina. Urolithiasis. 2015;43(4):323–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stitchantrakul W, Kochakarn W, Ruangraksa C, Domrongkitchaiporn S. Urinary risk factors for recurrent calcium stone formation in Thai stone formers. J Med Assoc Thail. 2007;90(4):688–98.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lemann J Jr, Gray RW. Idiopathic hypercalciuria. J Urol. 1989;141(3 Pt 2):715–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pak CY, Oata M, Lawrence EC, Snyder W. The hypercalciurias. Causes, parathyroid functions, and diagnostic criteria. J Clin Invest. 1974;54(2):387–400.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Audran M, Legrand E. Hypercalciuria. Joint Bone Spine. 2000;67(6):509–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zuckerman JM, Assimos DG. Hypocitraturia: pathophysiology and medical management. Rev Urol. 2009;11(3):134–44.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nicar MJ, Hill K, Pak CY. Inhibition by citrate of spontaneous precipitation of calcium oxalate in vitro. J Bone Miner Res. 1987;2(3):215–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sheng X, Jung T, Wesson JA, Ward MD. Adhesion at calcium oxalate crystal surfaces and the effect of urinary constituents. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102(2):267–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Domrongkitchaiporn S, Stitchantrakul W, Kochakarn W. Causes of hypocitraturia in recurrent calcium stone formers: focusing on urinary potassium excretion. Am J Kidney Dis. 2006;48(4):546–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sakhaee K. Epidemiology and clinical pathophysiology of uric acid kidney stones. J Nephrol. 2014;27(3):241–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wiederkehr MR, Moe OW. Uric acid nephrolithiasis: a systemic metabolic disorder. Clin Rev Bone Miner Metab. 2011;9(3–4):207–17.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pak CY, Sakhaee K, Moe O, Preminger GM, Poindexter JR, Peterson RD, Pietrow P, Ekeruo W. Biochemical profile of stone-forming patients with diabetes mellitus. Urology. 2003;61(3):523–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sakhaee K, Adams-Huet B, Moe OW, Pak CY. Pathophysiologic basis for normouricosuric uric acid nephrolithiasis. Kidney Int. 2002;62(3):971–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Daudon M, Traxer O, Conort P, Lacour B, Jungers P. Type 2 diabetes increases the risk for uric acid stones. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17(7):2026–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Finlayson B, Smith A. Stability of first dissociable proton of uric acid. J Chem Eng Data. 1974;19(1):94–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Asplin JR. Uric acid stones. Semin Nephrol. 1996;16(5):412–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Koka RM, Huang E, Lieske JC. Adhesion of uric acid crystals to the surface of renal epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2000;278(6):F989–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Narins RG, Goldberg M. Renal tubular acidosis: pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. Dis Mon. 1977;23:1–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Biyani CS, Cartledge JJ. Cystinuria: diagnosis and management. EAU-EBU Updat Ser. 2006;4:175–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Garrod A. The Croonian lectures on inborn errors of metabolism. Lancet. 1908;172:1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lassaigne J. Observation sur l’existence de l’oxide cystique dans un calcul vesical du chien, et essai analytique sur la composition élémentaire de cette substance particulière. Ann Chim Phys. 1823;23:328–34.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Feliubadaló L, Font M, Purroy J, et al. International Cystinuria Consortium. Non-type I cystinuria caused by mutations in SLC7A9, encoding a subunit (bo,+AT) of rBAT. Nat Genet. 1999;23(1):52–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chillarón J, Estévez R, Mora C, et al. Obligatory amino acid exchange via systems bo,+-like and y+L-like. A tertiary active transport mechanism for renal reabsorption of cystine and dibasic amino acids. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:17761–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Calonge MJ, Gasparini P, Chillarón J, et al. Cystinuria caused by mutations in rBAT, a gene involved in the transport of cystine. Nat Genet. 1994;6:420–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bisceglia L, Calonge MJ, Totaro A, et al. Localization, by linkage analysis, of the cystinuria type III gene to chromosome 19q13.1. Am J Hum Genet. 1997;60:611–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Andreassen KH, Pedersen KV, Osther SS, et al. How should patients with cystine stone disease be evaluated and treated in the twenty-first century? Urolithiasis. 2016;44(1):65–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Oddsson A, Sulem P, Helgason H, et al. Common and rare variants associated with kidney stones and biochemical traits. Nat Commun. 2015;6:7975.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rhodes HL, Yarram-Smith L, Rice SJ, et al. Clinical and genetic analysis of patients with cystinuria in the United Kingdom. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015;10(7):1235–45.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Markazi S, Kheirollahi M, Doosti A, et al. A novel mutation in SLC3A1 gene in patients with cystinuria. Iran J Kidney Dis. 2016;10(1):44–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wong KA, Mein R, Wass M, et al. The genetic diversity of cystinuria in a UK population of patients. BJU Int. 2015;116(1):109–16.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Di Perna M, Louizou E, Fischetti L, et al. Twenty-four novel mutations identified in a cohort of 85 patients by direct sequencing of the SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 cystinuria genes. Genet Test. 2008;12(3):351–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Font-Llitjós M, Jiménez-Vidal M, Bisceglia L, et al. New insights into cystinuria: 40 new mutations, genotype-phenotype correlation, and digenic inheritance causing partial phenotype. J Med Genet. 2005;42(1):58–68.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Brons AK, Henthorn PS, Raj K, et al. SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 mutations in autosomal recessive or dominant canine cystinuria: a new classification system. J Vet Intern Med. 2013;27(6):1400–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dello Strologo L, Pras E, Pontesilli C, et al. Comparison between SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 cystinuria patients and carriers: a need for a new classification. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002;13:2547–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rosenberg L, Durant J, Albrecht I. Genetic heterogeneity in cystinuria: evidence for allelism. Trans Assoc Am Phys. 1966;79:284–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Middleton JE. A simple, safe nitroprusside test using Ketostix reagent strips for detecting cystine and homocystine in urine. J Clin Pathol. 1970;23(1):90–1.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Smith A. Evaluation of the nitroprusside test for the diagnosis of cystinuria. Med J Aust. 1977;2(5):153–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Finocchiaro R, D’Eufemia P, Celli M, et al. Usefulness of cyanide-nitroprusside test in detecting incomplete recessive heterozygotes for cystinuria: a standardized dilution procedure. Urol Res. 1998;26(6):401–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Brand E, Harris MM, Biloon S. Cystinuria: excretion of a cystine complex which decomposes in the urine with the liberation of free cystine. J Biol Chem. 1930;86(1):315–31.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Coe FL, Clark C, Parks JH, Asplin JR. Solid phase assay of urine cystine supersaturation in the presence of cystine binding drugs. J Urol. 2001;166:688–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Sumorok N, Goldfarb DS. Update on cystinuria. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2013;22(4):427–31.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Cochat P, Deloraine A, Rotily M, et al. Epidemiology of primary hyperoxaluria type 1. Société de Néphrologie and the Société de Néphrologie Pédiatrique. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1995;10(Suppl 8):3–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    El-Reshaid K, Al-Bader D, Madda JP. Primary hyperoxaluria in an adult male: a rare cause of end-stage kidney disease yet potentially fatal if misdiagnosed. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2016;27(3):606–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lieske JC, Monico CG, Holmes WS, et al. International registry for primary hyperoxaluria. Am J Nephrol. 2005;25:290–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Leumann E, Hoppe B. The primary hyperoxalurias. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2001;12(9):1986–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lorenzo V, Torres A, Salido E. Primary hyperoxaluria. Nefrologia. 2014;34(3):398–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hoppe B. An update on primary hyperoxaluria. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2012;8(8):467–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Harambat J, Fargue S, Acquaviva C, et al. Genotype-phenotype correlation in primary hyperoxaluria type 1: the p.Gly170Arg AGXT mutation is associated with a better outcome. Kidney Int. 2010;77:443–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Cochat P, Liutkus A, Fargue S, et al. Primary hyperoxaluria type 1: still challenging! Pediatr Nephrol. 2006;21:1075–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Jellouli M, Ferjani M, Abidi K, et al. Primary hyperoxaluria in infants. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2016;27(3):526–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Bhasin B, Ürekli HM, Atta MG. Primary and secondary hyperoxaluria: understanding the enigma. World J Nephrol. 2015;4(2):235–44.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hoppe B, Leumann E, von Unruh G, et al. Diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in patients with secondary hyperoxaluria. Front Biosci. 2003;8:e437–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Dent CE, Philpot GR. Xanthinuria, an inborn error (or deviation) of metabolism. Lancet. 1954;263(6804):182–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Cartier P, Perignon JL. Xanthinuria. Nouv Press Med. 1978;7(16):1381–90.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Pais VM Jr, Lowe G, Lallas CD, et al. Xanthine urolithiasis. Urology. 2006;67(5):1084.e9–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Gargah T, Essid A, Labassi A, et al. Xanthine urolithiasis. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2010;21(2):328–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Anglani F, D’Angelo A, Bertizzolo LM, et al. Nephrolithiasis, kidney failure and bone disorders in Dent disease patients with and without CLCN5 mutations. Springerplus. 2015;4:492.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Prié D, Huart V, Bakouh N, et al. Nephrolithiasis and osteoporosis associated with hypophosphatemia caused by mutations in the type 2asodium-phosphate cotransporter. N Engl J Med. 2002;347(13):983–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Rafaelsen S, Johansson S, Ræder H, Bjerknes R. Hereditary hypophosphatemia in Norway: a retrospective population-based study of genotypes, phenotypes, and treatment complications. Eur J Endocrinol. 2016;174(2):125–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Stechman MJ, Loh NY, Thakker RV. Genetic causes of hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis. Pediatr Nephrol. 2009;24(12):2321–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Runolfsdottir HL, Palsson R, Agustsdottir IM, et al. Kidney disease in adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency. Am J Kidney Dis. 2016;67(3):431–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Edvardsson VO, Palsson R, Sahota A. Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency. In: Pagon RA, Adam MP, Ardinger HH, et al., editors. GeneReviews®[Internet]. Seattle: University of Washington, Seattle; 1993–2016. 30 Aug 2012 [updated 18 Jun 2015].Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gürel A, Üre İ, Temel HE, et al. The impact of klotho gene polymorphisms on urinary tract stone disease. World J Urol. 2016;34(7):1045–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Frang D, Götz F, Nagy Z, Gimes L, Kocsis B. Study of infective (secondary) renal calculus formation in vitro. Int Urol Nephrol. 1981;13(1):41–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Bichler KH, Eipper E, Naber K, Braun V, Zimmermann R, Lahme S. Urinary infection stones. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2002;19(6):488–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Schaffer JN, Norsworthy AN, Sun TT, Pearson MM. Proteus mirabilis fimbriae- and urease-dependent clusters assemble in an extracellular niche to initiate bladder stone formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113(16):4494–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Barr-Beare E, Saxena V, Hilt EE, et al. The interaction between enterobacteriaceae and calcium oxalate deposits. PLoS One. 2015;10(10):e0139575.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    De Cógáin MR, Lieske JC, Vrtiska TJ, et al. Secondary infected non-struvite urolithiasis: a prospective evaluation. Urology. 2014;84(6):1295–300.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Weizer AZ, Silverstein AD, Auge BK, Delvecchio FC, Raj G, Albala DM, et al. Determining the incidence of horseshoe kidney from radiographic data at a single institution. J Urol. 2003;170:1722–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Jira H, Ameur A, Kasmaoui E, et al. Pathologic horseshoe kidney. Report of 13 cases. Ann Urol (Paris). 2002;36(1):22–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Benchekroun A, Lachkar A, Soumana A, et al. Pathological horseshoe kidney. 30 case reports. Ann Urol (Paris). 1998;32(5):279–82.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Bennani S, Touijer A, Aboutaieb R, et al. [Pathological horseshoe kidney. Therapeutic aspects]. Ann Urol (Paris). 1994;28(5):254–7; discussion 258.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Woodward M, Frank D. Postnatal management of antenatal hydronephrosis. BJU Int. 2002;89(2):149–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Husmann DA, Milliner DS, Segura JW. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction with concurrent renal pelvic calculi in the pediatric patient: a long term follow up. J Urol. 1996;156:741–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Chahed J, Jouini R, Krichene I, et al. Urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformations in children: a retrospective study of 34 cases. Afr J Paediatr Surg. 2011;8(2):168–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Prakash J, Raj A, Sankhwar S, Singh V. Renal calculi with retrocaval ureter: is percutaneous nephrolithotomy sufficient? BMJ Case Rep. 2013;bcr2013008889. https://doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2013-008889.
  84. 84.
    Kanojia RP, Bawa M, Handu AT, et al. Retrocaval ureter with stone in the retrocaval segment of the ureter. Pediatr Surg Int. 2010;26(8):863–5.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Bhatia V, Biyani CS. ESWL for stone in a retrocaval ureter: a case report. Int Urol Nephrol. 1994;26(3):263–8.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Teo JK, Poh BK, Ng FC. Ureteral diverticulosis. Singapore Med J. 2010;51(9):e161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kumar A, Goel A, Singh M, Sankwar SN. Urolithiasis in primary obstructive megaureter: a management dilemma. BMJ Case Rep. 2014;30:2014.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Madani A, Kermani N, Ataei N, Esfahani ST, Hajizadeh N, Khazaeipour N, et al. Urinary calcium and uric acid excretion in children with vesicoureteral reflux. Pediatr Nephrol. 2012;27:95–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Chtourou M, Sallami S, Rekik H. Ureterocele in adults complicated with calculi: diagnostic and therapeutic features. Report of 20 cases. Prog Urol. 2002;12(6):1213–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hétet JF, Rigaud J, Karam G, et al. Complications of Bricker ileal conduit urinary diversion: analysis of a series of 246 patients. Prog Urol. 2005;15:23–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Shimko MS, Tollefson MK, Umbreit EC, Farmer SA, Blute ML, Frank I. Long-term complications of conduit urinary diversion. J Urol. 2011;185:562–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Terai A, Arai Y, Kawakita M, et al. Effect of urinary intestinal diversion on urinary risk factors for urolithiasis. J Urol. 1995;153:37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Gu SP, You ZY, Huang Y, et al. Minimally invasive percutaneous cystostomy with ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy for calculus in bladder diverticula. Exp Ther Med. 2013;5(6):1627–30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Atalar MH, Salk I, Cetin A, Bozbiyik N. A rare case of vesicourachal diverticulum with calculus in a 24-year-old man. Pol J Radiol. 2016;81:301–2.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Kronner KM, Casale AJ, Cain MP, et al. Bladder calculi in the pediatric augmented bladder. J Urol. 1998;160(3 Pt 2):1096–8; discussion 1103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Szymanski KM, Misseri R, Whittam B, et al. Cutting for stone in augmented bladders—what is the risk of recurrence and is it impacted by treatment modality? J Urol. 2014;191(5):1375–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hensle TW, Bingham J, Lam J, Shabsigh A. Preventing reservoir calculi after augmentation cystoplasty and continent urinary diversion: the influence of an irrigation protocol. BJU Int. 2004;93(4):585–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Silver RI, Gros DA, Jeffs RD, Georhart JP. Urolithiasis in the exstrophy-epispadias complex. J Urol. 1997;158:1322–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Nnabugwu I, Osakue E. Giant dumb-bell calculus complicating vesico-vaginal fistula—a case report. J West Afr Coll Surg. 2011;1(3):91–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Sawant A, Tamhankar AS, Pawar P, et al. Large dumbbell shaped vesicovaginal calculus managed with holmium laser cystolithotripsy followed by staged repair of vesicovaginal fistula. J Clin Diagn Res. 2016;10(9):PD23–5. Epub 1 Sept 2016.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Sigdel G, Aqarwal A, Keshaw BW. A giant urethral calculus. JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc. 2014;52(195):940–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Dong Z, Wang H, Zuo L, Hou M. Female urethral diverticulum containing a giant calculus: a CARE-compliant case report. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015;94(20):e826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Turo R, Smolski M, Kujawa M, et al. Acute urinary retention in women due to urethral calculi: a rare case. Can Urol Assoc J. 2014;8(1–2):E99–100.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Sasaki T, Onishi T, Hoshina A. Urinary retention caused by a urethral cystine stone in a 10-month-old infant. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2013;29(7):831–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Akhtar J, Ahmed S, Zamir N. Management of impacted urethral stones in children. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2012;22(8):510–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Everidge J. Jackstone calculi. Proc R Soc Med. 1927;20(5):717–8.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Singh KJ, Tiwari A, Goyal A. Jackstone: a rare entity of vesical calculus. Indian J Urol. 2011;27(4):543–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Grases F, Costa-Bauza A, Prieto RM, et al. Rare calcium oxalate monohydrate calculus attached to the wall of the renal pelvis. Int J Urol. 2011;18(4):323–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Gordon Z, Monga M. Endoscopic extraction of an ejaculatory duct calculus to treat obstructive azoospermia. J Endourol. 2001;15(9):949–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Gor RA, Woodhouse CR, Schober JM. Obstructive ejaculatory duct calculi in a patient with bladder augmentation and myelomeningocele. J Pediatr Urol. 2011;7(2):233–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Koh KB. Symptomatic prostatic calculi—a rare complication after TURP. Med J Malaysia. 1995;50(3):280–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Goyal NK, Goel A, Sankhwar S. Transurethral holmium-YAG laser lithotripsy for large symptomatic prostatic calculi: initial experience. Urolithiasis. 2013;41(4):355–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Park B, Choo SH. The burden of prostatic calculi is more important than the presence. Asian J Androl. 2017;19(4):482–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Najoui M, Qarro A, Ammani A, Alami M. Giant prostatic calculi. Pan Afr Med J. 2013;14:69.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Sfanos KS, Wilson BA, De Marzo AM, Isaacs WB. Acute inflammatory proteins constitute the organic matrix of prostatic corpora amylacea and calculi in men with prostate cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:3443–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Dessombz A, Meria P, Bazin D, Daudon M. Prostatic stones: evidence of a specific chemistry related to infection and presence of bacterial imprints. PLoS One. 2012;7:e51691.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Penkoff P, Bariol S. Urethral calculus originating from ureterocele and causing urinary retention. ANZ J Surg. 2015;85(11):892–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Sinha RK, Singh S, Kumar P. Prolapsed ureterocele, with calculi within, causing urinary retention in adult female. BMJ Case Rep. 2014;2014. pii: bcr2013202165.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Bhat GS. Preputial calculi: a case report and review of literature. Indian J Surg. 2017;79(1):70–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Nagata D, Sasaki S, Umemoto Y, Kohri K. Preputial calculi: case report. BJU Int. 1999;83:1076–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Spataru RI, Iozsa DA, Ivanov M. Preputial calculus in a neurologically-impaired child. Indian Pediatr. 2015;52(2):149–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Lieske JC, Mehta RA, Milliner DS, et al. Kidney stones are common after bariatric surgery. Kidney Int. 2015;87(4):839–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Gonzalez RD, Canales BK. Kidney stone risk following modern bariatric surgery. Curr Urol Rep. 2014;15(5):401.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Litschgi MS, Benz JJ, Glatthaar E. Bladder stones as a complication of gynecologic surgery. Fortschr Med. 1975;93(32):1627–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Amin U, Mahmood R. An unusual vesical calculus. J Radiol Case Rep. 2009;3(2):10–3.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Rodríguez Collar TL, Gil del Valle Y, Valdés Estévez B, et al. Bladder lithiasis secondary to intrauterine device migration. Case report. Arch Esp Urol. 2008;61(5):640–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Karsmakers R, Weis-Potters AE, Buijs G, Joustra EB. Chronic kidney disease after vesico-vaginal stone formation around a migrated intrauterine device. BMJ Case Rep. 2010;23:2010.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Kumar S, Jayant K, Singh SK, et al. Delayed migration of embolized coil with large renal stone formation: a rare presentation. Case Rep Urol. 2014;2014:687965.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Bjurlin MA, Berger AD. Herniorrhaphy mesh as nidus for bladder calculi. Urology. 2011;78(2):329–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Lieske JC, Rule AD, Krambeck AE. Stone composition as a function of age and sex. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014;9(12):2141–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Daudon M, Protat MF, Réveillaud RJ. Detection and diagnosis of drug-induced lithiasis. Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 1983;41(4):239–49.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Daudon M, Jungers P. Drug-induced renal calculi: epidemiology, prevention and management. Drugs. 2004;64(3):245–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Barbey F, Nseir G, Ferrier C, et al. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and calcium phosphate stones. Nephrologie. 2004;25(5):169–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Lehr D. Clinical toxicity of sulfonamides. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1957;69:417–47.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    De Koninck AS, Groen LA, Maes H, et al. An unusual type of kidney stone. Clin Lab. 2016;62(1–2):235–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Yanagasawa R, Kamijo T, Nagase Y. A case of drug induced urolithiasis composed of acetyl sulphapyridine associated with ulcerative colitis. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi. 1999;90(3):462–5.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Schwartz BF, Schenkman N, Armenakas NA, Stoller ML. Imaging characteristics of indinavir calculi. J Urol. 1999;161(4):1085–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Hess B. Drug-induced urolithiasis. Curr Opin Urol. 1998;8(4):331–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Izzedine H, Lescure FX, Bonnet F. HIV medication-based urolithiasis. Clin Kidney J. 2014;7(2):121–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Khalil C, Mohanty MJ, Kaatz G, Abu-Hamdan D. Efavirenz-associated urinary Matrix stone—a rare presentation. Am J Med Sci. 2016;351(2):213–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Moesch C, Rince M, Raby C, Leroux-Robert C. Aminopenicillin crystalluria: identification by infrared spectrophotometry. Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 1985;43(3):227–31.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Chutipongtanate S, Thongboonkerd V. Ceftriaxone crystallization and its potential role in kidney stone formation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;406(3):396–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Small E, Sandefur BJ. Acute renal failure after ingestion of guaifenesin and dextromethorphan. J Emerg Med. 2014;47(1):26–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Assimos DG, Langenstroer P, Leinbach RF, et al. Guaifenesin- and ephedrine-induced stones. J Endourol. 1999;13(9):665–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Augusti M, Mikaelian JC, Monsaint H, et al. A silica urinary calculus secondary to the absorption of gelopectose in a child. Prog Urol. 1993;3(5):812–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Daudon M, Reveillaud RJ, Normand M, et al. Piridoxilate-induced calcium oxalate calculi: a new drug-induced metabolic nephrolithiasis. J Urol. 1987;138(2):258–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Fukumoto R, Katayama K, Hayashi T, et al. Two cases of urolithiasis induced by topiramate. Hinyokika Kiyo. 2011;57(3):125–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Daudon M. Drug-induced urinary calculi in 1999. Prog Urol. 1999;9(6):1023–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Horiuchi H, Ota M, Kobayashi M, et al. A comparative study on the hypouricemic activity and potency in renal xanthine calculus formation of two xanthine oxidase/xanthine dehydrogenase inhibitors: TEI-6720 and allopurinol in rats. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 1999;104(3):307–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Ikari O, Leitão VA, D’ancona CA. Intravesical calculus secondary to ethanol gel injection into the prostate. Urology. 2005;65(5):1002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Beltrami P, Ruggera L, Guttilla A, et al. The endourological treatment of renal matrix stones. Urol Int. 2014;93(4):394–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Shah HN, Kharodawala S, Sodha HS, et al. The management of renal matrix calculi: a single-centre experience over 5 years. BJU Int. 2009;103(6):810–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Manny TB, Mufarrij PW, Lange JN, et al. Gas-containing renal stones: findings from five consecutive patients. Urology. 2012;80(6):1203–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Howles SA, Edwards MH, Cooper C, Thakker RV. Kidney stones: a fetal origins hypothesis. J Bone Miner Res. 2013;28(12):2535–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Gambaro G, Trinchieri A. Recent advances in managing and understanding nephrolithiasis/nephrocalcinosis. F1000Res. 2016;5. pii: F1000 Faculty Rev-695.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Rule AD, Roger VL, Melton LJ 3rd, et al. Kidney stones associate with increased risk for myocardial infarction. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21:1641–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Alexander RT, Hemmelgarn BR, Wiebe N, et al. Kidney stones and cardiovascular events: a cohort study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014;9:506–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Fabris A, Ferraro PM, Comellato G, et al. The relationship between calcium kidney stones, arterial stiffness and bone density: unraveling the stone-bone-vessel liaison. J Nephrol. 2015;28(5):549–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Shavit L, Girfoglio D, Vijay V, et al. Vascular calcification and bone mineral density in recurrent kidney stone formers. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015;10(2):278–85.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Cacci R, Ricci V. Sopra una rara e forse ancora non descritta affezione cistica delle piramidi renali (‘rene a spugna’). Atti Soc Ital Urol. 1948;5:59–63.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Xu H, Zisman AL, Coe FL, Worcester EM. Kidney stones: an update on current pharmacological management and future directions. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2013;14(4):435–47.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Mrowka C, Adam G, Sieberth HG, Matern S. Caroli’s syndrome associated with medullary sponge kidney and nephrocalcinosis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1996;11(6):1142–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Nishiura JL, Neves RF, Eloi SR, et al. Evaluation of nephrolithiasis in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;4(4):838–44.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Torres VE, Erickson SB, Smith LH, et al. The association of nephrolithiasis and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 1988;11(4):318–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Nyhan WL, O’Neill JP, Jinnah HA, Harris JC. Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. In: Pagon RA, Adam MP, Ardinger HH, et al., editors. GeneReviews®[Internet]. Seattle: University of Washington, Seattle; 1993–2016. 25 Sept 2000 [updated 15 May 2014].Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Siener R, Petzold J, Bitterlich N, et al. Determinants of urolithiasis in patients with intestinal fat malabsorption. Urology. 2013;81(1):17–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Ferraz RR, Tiselius HG, Heilberg IP. Fat malabsorption induced by gastrointestinal lipase inhibitor leads to an increase in urinary oxalate excretion. Kidney Int. 2004;66(2):676–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Faggiano A, Pivonello R, Melis D, et al. Nephrolithiasis in Cushing’s disease: prevalence, etiopathogenesis, and modification after disease cure. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88(5):2076–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Trinchieri A, Lizzano R, Castelnuovo C, et al. Urinary patterns of patients with renal stones associated with chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2002;74(2):61–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    McConnell N, Campbell S, Gillanders I, et al. Risk factors for developing renal stones in inflammatory bowel disease. BJU Int. 2002;89(9):835–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Rizzato G, Fraioli P, Montemurro L. Nephrolithiasis as a presenting feature of chronic sarcoidosis. Thorax. 1995;50(5):555–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Darabi K, Torres G, Chewaproug D. Nephrolithiasis as primary symptom in sarcoidosis. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2005;39(2):173–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Patel AM, Goldfarb S. Got calcium? Welcome to the calcium-alkali syndrome. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21(9):1440–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Medarov BI. Milk-alkali syndrome. Mayo Clin Proc. 2009;84(3):261–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Pereira Arias JG, Gurtubay Arrieta I, Escobal Tamayo V, et al. Megacalycosis and lithiasis. Arch Esp Urol. 1995;48(3):310–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Thakker RV. Pathogenesis of Dent’s disease and related syndromes of X-linked nephrolithiasis. Kidney Int. 2000;57(3):787–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Thakker RV. Molecular pathology of renal chloride channels in Dent’s disease and Bartter’s syndrome. Exp Nephrol. 2000;8(6):351–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Eriksson P, Denneberg T, Eneström S, et al. Urolithiasis and distal renal tubular acidosis preceding primary Sjögren’s syndrome: a retrospective study 5-53 years after the presentation of urolithiasis. J Intern Med. 1996;239(6):483–8.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Mittal R, Saxena S, Hotchandani RK, et al. Bilateral renal stones associated with nail-patella syndrome. Nephron. 1994;68(4):509.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Cevik Y, Corbacioglu SK, Cikrikci G, et al. The effects of Ramadan fasting on the number of renal colic visits to the emergency department. Pak J Med Sci. 2016;32(1):18–21.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Soueidan M, Bartlett SJ, Noureldin YA, et al. Leisure time physical activity, smoking and risk of recent symptomatic urolithiasis: survey of stone clinic patients. Can Urol Assoc J. 2015;9(7–8):257–62.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Okada A, Ichikawa J, Tozawa K. Kidney stone formation during space flight and long-term bed rest. Clin Calcium. 2011;21(10):1505–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Said Abdallah Al-Mamari
    • 1
  1. 1.The Royal HospitalMuscatOman

Personalised recommendations