The umbilicus embryologically represents the neck of the bottle, which contains the umbilical vessels and structures related to the digestive and urinary systems. After the fall of the umbilical stump a few days after birth, its scarred tissue remains as the belly button, which is considered a mirror of the abdomen and should be carefully checked, particularly for newborns. A basic understanding of its anatomy and embryology is essential to identify and manage its disorders. Investigating the abnormal conditions at the umbilicus is crucial, because corrective surgical interventions may be required and conducted as soon as possible.
The umbilicus also represents a relatively weak point in the anterior abdominal wall that is prone to herniation or bulging as a result of increased intra-abdominal pressure. Moreover, most abnormal conditions observed at the umbilicus are attributed to developmental disorders. Thus, focusing on the development of the umbilicus and its congenital anomalies and correlating these conditions with clinical findings are necessary; also types and shapes of the umbilicus and its position had some clinical correlations.
KeywordsInnie Outie Mamelon Umbilical ring Umbilical venous catheterization Transumbilical endoscopic surgery