Patient’s Own Risk Factors

  • Shadi Dowlatshahi
  • Wei-I Vickie Wu
  • Michael Donald Wang


Successful robotic surgery requires preoperative medical optimization. Best practice addresses the spectrum of the patient’s own medical risk factors in an effort to identify patients with elevated risk and ascertain what is modifiable. This spectrum includes cardiac and pulmonary issues, as well as thromboembolic and bleeding risk. Because robotic surgery is often performed in older patients, we also discuss delirium and frailty. In this chapter we cover risk factors, risk assessment tools, and interventions that may improve outcomes, in addition to reviewing procedure-related medical complications. Our aim is to provide a solid medical approach to a smooth operation.


Preoperative risk assessment Clinical risk predictors Risk factors Cardiac risk Pulmonary risk Bleeding risk Delirium Frailty 



Arterial blood gas




Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor


American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program


ACS-NSQIP Gupta MI Cardiac Arrest




Angiotensin receptor blocker


American Society of Anesthesiology




Bare-metal stent


Coronary artery bypass graft


Confusion Assessment Method


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease


Continuous positive airway pressure


Creatinine clearance


Dual antiplatelet therapy


Drug-eluting stent


Direct oral anticoagulant


Dobutamine stress echocardiogram


Deep vein thrombosis


Intraocular pressure


Incentive spirometry


Low molecular weight heparin


Major adverse cardiac event


Metabolic equivalents


Myocardial infarction


Miles per hour


Myocardial perfusion imaging


Nasogastric tube


Obstructive sleep apnea


Percutaneous coronary intervention


Pulmonary embolism


Pulmonary function tests


Postoperative pulmonary complications


Revised Cardiac Risk Index


Unfractionated heparin


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shadi Dowlatshahi
    • 1
  • Wei-I Vickie Wu
    • 2
  • Michael Donald Wang
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Internal MedicineOregon Health and Science UniversityPortlandUSA
  2. 2.Department of MedicineUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Department of MedicineKeck Medical Center of University of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

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