Enhancing Exploration and Exploitation of NSGA-II with GP and PDL

  • Peter David ShannonEmail author
  • Chrystopher L. Nehaniv
  • Somnuk Phon-Amnuaisuk
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10385)


In this paper, we show that NSGA-II can be applied to GP and the Process Description Language (PDL) and describe two modifications to NSGA-II. The first modification removes individuals which have the same behaviour from GP populations. It selects for de-duplication by taking the result of each objective fitness function together to make a comparison. NSGA-II is designed to expand its Pareto front of solutions by favouring individuals who have the highest or lowest value (boundary points) in a front, for any objective. The second modification enhances exploitation by preferring individuals who occupy an extreme position for most objective fitness functions. The results show, for the first time, that NSGA-II can be used with PDL and GP to successfully solve a robot control problem and that the suggested modifications offer significant improvements over an algorithm used previously with GP and PDL and unmodified NSGA-II for our test problem.


Genetic programming Process description language Exploration and exploitation NSGA-II 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter David Shannon
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Chrystopher L. Nehaniv
    • 2
  • Somnuk Phon-Amnuaisuk
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Computing and InformaticsUniversiti of Teknologi BruneiBandar Seri BegawanBrunei
  2. 2.School of Computer ScienceUniversity of HertfordshireHatfieldUK

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