Advertisement

Vocational Training for Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorder

  • Matthew J. Konst
Chapter
Part of the Autism and Child Psychopathology Series book series (ACPS)

Abstract

Work and the self-worth and independence derived from it are key elements of adult life. Until recently adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have received little attention from clinicians and researchers. However, this trend is changing with considerate interest on vocational programs that are emerging. This chapter advocates for transitioning to vocational training from primary education for individuals with ASD to assist them in developing skills that will help with future employment.

Keywords

Employment Vocational training Adult ASD 

References

  1. Bellstedt, E., Gillberg, C., & Gillberg, C. (2005). Autism after adolescence: Population-based 13- to 22-year follow-up study of 120 individuals with autism diagnosed in childhood. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 351–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berkman, K. A., & Meyer, L. H. (1988). Alternative strategies and multiple outcomes in the remediation of severe self-injury: Going “all out” nonaversively. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 13(2), 76–86.Google Scholar
  3. Billstedt, C. G. E. (2000). Autism and Asperger syndrome: Coexistence with other clinical disorders. Aacta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 102, 321–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bolman, W. M. (2008). Brief report: 25-year follow-up of a high-functioning autistic child. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(1), 181–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bond, G. R., Resnick, S. G., Drake, R. E., Xie, H., McHugo, G. J., & Bebout, R. R. (2001). Does competitive employment improve nonvocational outcomes for people with severe mental illness? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69(3), 489.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Braddock, D., Hemp, R., & Rizzolo, M. C. (2008). The state of the states in developmental disabilities: 2008. Washington, DC: American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.Google Scholar
  7. Burgess, S., & Cimera, R. E. (2014). Employment outcomes of transition-aged adults with autism spectrum disorders: A state of the state’s report. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 119(1), 64–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burke, R. V., Andersen, M. N., Bowen, S. L., Howard, M. R., & Allen, K. D. (2010). Evaluation of two instruction methods to increase employment options for young adults with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 31(6), 1223–1233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burt, D. B., Fuller, S. P., & Lewis, K. R. (1991). Brief report: Competitive employment of adults with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 21(2), 237–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Butterworth, J., Smith, F. A., Hall, A. C., Migliore, A., & Winsor, J. (2009). State data: The National Report on employment services and outcomes. Boston, MA: Institute for Community Inclusion, University of Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  11. Camarena, P. M., & Sarigiani, P. A. (2009). Postsecondary educational aspirations of high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and their parents. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities.Google Scholar
  12. Cameto, R., Marder, C., Wagner, M., & Cardoso, D. (2003). Youth employment, NLTS2 data brief, National Center on secondary education and transition. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  13. Cameto, R., Levine, P., & Wagner, M. (2004). Transition Planning for Students with Disabilities: A Special Topic Report of Findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2). Washington, DC: National Center for Special Education Research.Google Scholar
  14. Cedurland, M., Hagberg, B., Billstedt, E., Gillberg, I. C., & Gillberg, C. (2008). Asperger syndrome and autism: A comparative longitudinal follow-up study more than five years after original diagnosis. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 72–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Certo, N. J., Luecking, R. G., Murphy, S., Brown, L., Courey, S., & Belanger, D. (2008). Seamless transition and long-term support for individuals with severe intellectual disabilities. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 33, 85–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Certo, N. J., Mautz, D., Pumpian, I., Sax, C., Smalley, K., Wade, H. A., ... Batterman, N. (2003). Review and discussion of a model for seamless transition to adulthood. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 3–17.Google Scholar
  17. Chadsey, J., & Beyer, S. (2001). Social relationships in the workplace. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 7(2), 128–133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cihak, D. F., Kessler, K., & Alberto, P. A. (2008). Use of a handheld prompting system to transition independently through vocational tasks for students with moderate and severe intellectual disabilities. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 102–110.Google Scholar
  19. Cimera, R. E. (2011). Does being in sheltered workshops improve the employment outcomes of supported employees with intellectual disabilities? Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 35(1), 21–27.Google Scholar
  20. Cimera, R., & Cowan, R. (2009). The costs of services and employment outcomes achieved by adults with autism in the US. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 13, 285–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Drake, R. E., & Becker, D. R. (1996). The individual placement and support model of supported employment. Psychiatric Services, 47(5), 473–475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Eaves, L. C., & Ho, H. H. (2008). Young adult outcome of autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(4), 739–747.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Engstrom, I., Ekstrom, L., & Emilsson, B. (2003). Psychological functioning in a group of Swedish adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism. Autism, 7, 99–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Esbensen, A. J., Bishop, S., Seltzer, M. M., Greenberg, J. S., & Taylor, J. L. (2010). Comparisons between individuals with autism spectrum disorders and individuals with Down syndrome in adulthood. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 115(4), 277–290.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Farley, M. A., McMahon, W. M., Fombonne, E., Jenson, W. R., Miller, J., Gardner, M., … Coon, H. (2009). Twenty-year outcome for individuals with autism and average or near-average cognitive abilities. Autism Research, 2(2), 109–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fast, Y. (2004). Employment for individuals with Asperger syndrome or non-verbal learning disability: Stories and strategies. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.Google Scholar
  27. Foley, B. E., & Staples, A. H. (2003). Developing augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) and literacy interventions in a supported employment setting. Topics in Language Disorders, 23(4), 325–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fombonne, E. (2003). Epidemiological surveys of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders: An update. Journal of Autism and Other Developmental Disorders, 23, 365–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. deFur, S. H., & Patton, J. R. (1999). Transition and school-based services: Interdisciplinary perspectives for enhancing the transition process. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.Google Scholar
  30. Garcia-Villamisar, D., & Hughes, C. (2007). Supported employment improves cognitive performance in adults with autism. Journal Intellectual Disabilities Research, 51, 142–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Garcia-Villamisar, D., Ross, D., & Wehman, P. (2000). Clinical differential analysis of persons with autism in a work setting: A follow-up study. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 14(3), 183–185.Google Scholar
  32. Garcia-Villamisar, D., Wehman, P., & Navarro, M. D. (2002). Changes in the quality of autistic people’s life that work in supported and sheltered employment. A 5-year follow-up study. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 17, 309–312.Google Scholar
  33. Gentry, T., Lau, S., Molinelli, A., Fallen, A., & Kriner, R. (2012). The apple iPod touch as a vocational support aid for adults with autism: Three case studies. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 37(2), 75–85.Google Scholar
  34. Gerhardt, P. F., & Holmes, D. L. (2005). Employment: Options and issues for adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders. In F. R. Volkmar, R. Paul, A. Klin, & D. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders, Vol. 2: Assessment, interventions, and policy (3rd ed.pp. 1087–1101). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  35. Gilchrist, A., Green, J., Cox, A., Burton, D., Rutter, M., & Le Couteur, A. (2001). Development and current functioning in adolescents with Asperger syndrome: A comparative study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42, 227–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gilmore, D. S., Schuster, J. L., Timmons, J. C., & Butterworth, J. (2000). An analysis of trends for people with MR, cerebral palsy, and epilepsy receiving services from state VR agencies ten years of progress. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 44(1), 30–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gray, C. A. (1998). Social stories and comic strip conversations with students with Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism. In E. Schopler, G. B. Mesibox, & L. J. Kunce (Eds.), Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism? (pp. 167–198). Springer US). New York, NY: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gunby, K. V., Carr, J. E., & LeBlanc, L. A. (2010). Teaching abduction-prevention skills to children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 43(1), 107–112.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hagner, D., & Cooney, B. F. (2005). “I do that for everybody”: Supervising employees with autism. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 20(2), 91–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hendricks, D. (2010). Employment and adults with autism spectrum disorders: Challenges and strategies for success. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 32(2), 125–134.Google Scholar
  41. Hendricks, D. R., & Wehman, P. (2009). Transition from school to adulthood for youth with autism spectrum disorders: Review and recommendations. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities.Google Scholar
  42. Hill, M. L., Wehman, P. H., Kregel, J., Banks, P. D., & Metzler, H. M. (1987). Employment outcomes for people with moderate and severe disabilities: An eight-year longitudinal analysis of supported competitive employment. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 12(3), 182–189.Google Scholar
  43. Hillier, A., Campbell, H., Mastriani, K., Izzo, M. V., Kool-Tucker, A. K., Cherry, L., & Beversdorf, D. Q. (2007). Two-year evaluation of a vocational support program for adults on the autism spectrum. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 30(1), 35–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hofvander, B., Delorme, R., Chaste, P., Nydén, A., Wentz, E., Ståhlberg, O., … Råstam, M. (2009). Psychiatric and psychosocial problems in adults with normal-intelligence autism spectrum disorders. BMC Psychiatry, 9(1), 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Howlin, P. (2000). Outcome in adult life for more able individuals with autism or Asperger syndrome. Autism, 4(1), 63–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Howlin, P., Alcock, J., & Burkin, C. (2005). An 8 year follow-up of a specialist supported employment service for high-ability adults with autism or Asperger syndrome. Autism, 9(5), 533–549.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Howlin, P., & Goode, S. (1998). Outcome in adult life for individuals with autism. In F. Volkmar (Ed.), Autism and developmental disorders. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Howlin, P., Goode, S., Hutton, J., & Rutter, M. (2004). Adult outcome for children with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(2), 212–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hume, K., & Odom, S. (2007). Effects of an individual work system on the independent functioning of students with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(6), 1166–1180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hurlbutt, K., & Chalmers, L. (2002). Adults with autism speak out perceptions of their life experiences. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 17(2), 103–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hurlbutt, K., & Chalmers, L. (2004). Employment and adults with Asperger syndrome. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 19, 215–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Inge, K. J., Wehman, P., Revell, G., Erickson, D., Butterworth, J., & Gilmore, D. (2009). Survey results from a national survey of community rehabilitation providers holding special wage certificates. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 30, 67–85.Google Scholar
  53. Iovannone, R., Dunlap, G., Huber, H., & Kincaid, D. (2003). Effective educational practices for students with autism spectrum disorders. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 18, 150–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Järbrink, K., McCrone, P., Fombonne, E., Zandén, H., & Knapp, M. (2007). Cost-impact of young adults with high-functioning autistic spectrum disorder. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 28(1), 94–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jennes-Coussens, M., Magill-Evans, J., & Koning, C. (2006). The quality of life of young men with Asperger syndrome: A brief report. Autism, 10, 403–414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kanner, L. (1973). Childhood psychosis: Initial studies and new insights. New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  57. Keel, J. H., Mesibov, G. B., & Woods, A. V. (1997). TEACCH-supported employment program. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 27(1), 3–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kellems, R. O., & Morningstar, M. E. (2012). Using video modeling delivered through iPods to teach vocational tasks to young adults with autism spectrum disorders. Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals, 35(3), 155–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kemp, D. C., & Carr, E. G. (1995). Reduction of severe problem behavior in community employment using an hypothesis-driven multicomponent intervention approach. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 20(4), 229–247.Google Scholar
  60. Kim, J. A., Szatmari, P., Bryson, S. E., Streiner, D. L., & Wilson, F. J. (2000). The prevalence of anxiety and mood problems among children with autism and Asperger syndrome. Autism, 4(2), 117–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kobayashi, R., & Murata, T. (1998). Behavioral characteristics of 187 young adults with autism. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 52(4), 383–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Koning, C., & Magill-Evans, J. (2001). Social and language skills in adolescent boys with Asperger syndrome. Autism, 5(1), 23–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. La Malfa, G., Lassi, S., Bertelli, M., Salvini, R., & Placidi, G. F. (2004). Autism and intellectual disability: A study of prevalence on a sample of the Italian population. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 48(3), 262–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Landa, R. J., & Goldberg, M. C. (2005). Language, social, and executive functions in high functioning autism: A continuum of performance. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35(5), 557–573.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lattimore, L. P., Parsons, M. B., & Reid, D. H. (2006). Enhancing job site training on supported workers with autism: A reemphasis on simulation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 39, 91–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lawer, L., Brusilovskiy, E., Salzer, M. S., & Mandell, D. S. (2009). Use of vocational rehabilitative services among adults with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(3), 487–494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Liptak, G. S., Benzoni, L. B., Mruzek, D. W., Nolan, K. W., Thingvoll, M. A., Wade, C. M., & Fryer, G. E. (2008). Disparities in diagnosis and access to health services for children with autism: data from the National Survey of Children’s Health. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 29(3), 152–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lopez, B. R., Lincoln, A. J., Ozonoff, S., & Lai, Z. (2005). Examining the relationship between executive functions and restricted, repetitive symptoms of autistic disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35(4), 445–460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Luecking, R., & Gramlich, M. (2003). Quality work-based learning and postschool employment success. Issue Brief: Examining Current Challenges in Secondary Education and Transition, 2(2), 1–5.Google Scholar
  70. Matson, J. L., & Shoemaker, M. (2009). Intellectual disability and its relationship to autism spectrum disorders. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30(6), 1107–1114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mawhood, L., & Howlin, P. (1999). The outcome of a supported employment scheme for high-functioning adults with autism or Asperger syndrome. Autism, 3(3), 229–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mawhood, L., Howlin, P., & Rutter, M. (2000). Autism and developmental receptive language disorder—A comparative follow-up in early adult life. I: Cognitive and language outcomes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 547–559.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Migliore, A., Timmons, J., Butterworth, J., & Lugas, J. (2012). Predictors of employment and postsecondary education of youth with autism. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 55(3), 176–184.Google Scholar
  74. Miltenberger, R. G. (2008). Behavior modification: Principles and procedures (4th ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  75. Morgan, H. (1996). Underpinning philosophy in the provision of services for adults with autism: A critique of global values related to specific practice. Adults with autism: A guide to theory and practice, 31–52.Google Scholar
  76. Moxon, L., & Gates, D. (2001). Children with autism: Supporting the transition to adulthood. Educational and Child Psychology, 18(2), 28–40.Google Scholar
  77. Müller, E., Schuler, A., Burton, B. A., & Yates, G. B. (2003). Meeting the vocational support needs of individuals with Asperger syndrome and other autism spectrum disabilities. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 18(3), 163–175.Google Scholar
  78. Nesbitt, S. (2000). Why and why not? Factors influencing employment for individuals with Asperger syndrome. Autism, 4(4), 357–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Nuehring, M. L., & Sitlington, P. L. (2003). Transition as a vehicle: Moving from high school to an adult vocational service provider. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 14, 23–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. O’Brien, M., & Daggett, J. A. (2006). Beyond the autism diagnosis: A professional’s guide to helping families. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.Google Scholar
  81. Ozonoff, S., Rogers, S., & Hendron, R. (Eds.). (2003). Autism spectrum disorders: A research review for practitioners. London, UK: American Psychiatric Publishing.Google Scholar
  82. Patterson, A., & Rafferty, A. (2001). Making it to work: Towards employment for the young adult with autism. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 36(S1), 475–480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Riffel, L. A., Wehmeyer, M. L., Turnbull, A. P., & Lattimore, J. (2005). Promoting independent performance of transition-related tasks using a palmtop PC-based self-directed visual and auditory prompting system. Journal of Special Education Technology, 20(2), 5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Roux, A. M., Shattuck, P. T., Cooper, B. P., Anderson, K. A., Wagner, M., & Narendorf, S. C. (2013). Postsecondary employment experiences among young adults with an autism spectrum disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52(9), 931–939.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rutkowski, S., Daston, M., Van Kuiken, D., & Riehle, E. (2006). Project SEARCH: A demand-side model of high school transition. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 25(2), 85–96.Google Scholar
  86. Rutter, M. (1983). Cognitive deficits in the pathogenesis of autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 24(4), 513–531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Schall, C., Cortijo-Doval, E., Targett, P. S., & Wehman, P. (2006). Applications for youth with autism spectrum disorders. In P. Wehman (Ed.), Life beyond the classroom: Transition strategies for young people with disabilities (4th ed.pp. 535–575). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co..Google Scholar
  88. Schall, C., & Wehman, P. (2008). Understanding the transition from school to adulthood for students with autism. In P. Wehman, M. D. Smith, & C. Schall (Eds.), Autism and the transition to adulthood: Success beyond the classroom (pp. 1–14). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  89. Schaller, J., & Yang, N. K. (2005). Competitive employment for people with autism correlates of successful closure in competitive and supported employment. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 49(1), 4–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Schopler, E. (1994). A statewide program for the treatment and education of autistic and related communication handicapped children (TEACCH). Psychoses and Pervasive Developmental Disorders, 3(7), 91–103.Google Scholar
  91. Shattuck, P. T., Wagner, M., Narendorf, S., Sterzing, P., & Hensley, M. (2011). Post–high school service use among young adults with an autism spectrum disorder. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 165(2), 141–146.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Shattuck, P. T., Narendorf, S. C., Cooper, B., Sterzing, P. R., Wagner, M., & Taylor, J. L. (2012). Postsecondary education and employment among youth with an autism spectrum disorder. Pediatrics, 129(6), 1042–1049.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Smith, M. D. (1985). Managing the aggressive and self-injurious behavior of adults disabled by autism. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 10(4), 228–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Smith, M. D. (1986). Managing the aggressive and self-injurious behaviors of adults disabled by autism in the community. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 10, 228–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Smith, M. D. (1987). Treatment of pica in an adult disabled by autism by differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 18, 285–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Smith, M. D. (1995). A guide to successful employment for individuals with autism. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. (stock# 1715, $31).Google Scholar
  97. Smith, M. D., Belcher, R. G., & Juhrs, P. D. (1995). A guide to successful employment for individuals with autism. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.Google Scholar
  98. Smith, M. D., & Coleman, D. (1986). Managing the behavior of adults with autism in the job setting. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 16(2), 145–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Smith, M. J., Ginger, E. J., Wright, K., Wright, M. A., Taylor, J. L., Humm, L. B., … Fleming, M. F. (2014). Virtual reality job interview training in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(10), 2450–2463.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Smith, M. D., & Philippen, L. R. (1999). Community integration and supported employment. In D. B. Zager (Ed.), Autism: Identification, education, and treatment (2nd ed.pp. 301–321). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  101. Sperry, L. A., & Mesibov, G. B. (2005). Perceptions of social challenges of adults with autism spectrum disorder. Autism, 9(4), 362–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Taylor, J. L., McPheeters, M. L., Sathe, N. A., Dove, D., Veenstra-VanderWeele, J., & Warren, Z. (2012). A systematic review of vocational interventions for young adults with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 130(3), 531–538.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Taylor, J. L., & Seltzer, M. M. (2010). Changes in the autism behavioral phenotype during the transition to adulthood. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(12), 1431–1446.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Taylor, J. L., & Seltzer, M. M. (2011). Employment and post-secondary educational activities for young adults with autism spectrum disorders during the transition to adulthood. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(5), 566–574.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Tsang, M. C. (1997). The cost of vocational training. International Journal of Manpower, 18(1/2), 63–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Tuma, N. B. (1983). Effects of labor market structure on job-shift patterns. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 65, 83–89.Google Scholar
  107. Van Bourgondien, M. E., Reichle, N. C., & Palmer, A. (1997). Sexual behavior in adults with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 27(2), 113–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Van Laarhoven, T., Johnson, J. W., Van Laarhoven-Myers, T., Grider, K. L., & Grider, K. M. (2009). The effectiveness of using a video iPod as a prompting device in employment settings. Journal of Behavioral Education, 18(2), 119–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Volkmar, F. R., Stier, D. M., & Cohen, D. J. (1985). Age of recognition of pervasive developmental disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 1450–1452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Wagner, M., Newman, L., Cameto, R., Garza, N., & Levine, P. (2005). After high school: A first look at the postschool experiences of youth with disabilities. A report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study–2 (NLTS-2). Menlo Park, CA: SRI International.Google Scholar
  111. Wehman, P. (2006). Individualized transition planning: Putting self-determination into action. In P. Wehman (Ed.), Life beyond the classroom: Transition strategies for young people with disabilities (4th ed.pp. 71–96). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  112. Wehman, P., Inge, K. J., Revell, W. G., & Brooke, V. A. (2007). Real work for real pay: Inclusive employment for people with disabilities. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co..Google Scholar
  113. Wehman, P. (Ed.). (2001). Supported employment in business: Expanding the capacity of workers with disabilities. Training Resource Network Incorporated.Google Scholar
  114. Wehman, P. H., Schall, C. M., McDonough, J., Kregel, J., Brooke, V., Molinelli, A., ... & Thiss, W. (2014). Competitive employment for youth with autism spectrum disorders: Early results from a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(3), 487–500.Google Scholar
  115. Wehman, P., Schall, C., McDonough, J., Molinelli, A., Riehle, E., Ham, W., & Thiss, W. R. (2012). Project SEARCH for youth with autism spectrum disorders: Increasing competitive employment on transition from high school. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1–12.Google Scholar
  116. Wehman, P., West, M., & Kregel, J. (1999). Supported employment program development and research needs: Looking ahead to the year 2000. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 3–19.Google Scholar
  117. Whitehead, C. W. (1979). Sheltered workshops in the decade ahead: Better work and wages, or welfare. Journal of Rehabilitation, 45(2), 77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Wing, L. (1996). Autistic spectrum disorders. British Medical Journal, 312(7027), 327.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Witte, J. C., & Kalleberg, A. L. (1995). Matching training and jobs: The fit between vocational education and employment in the German labour market. European Sociological Review, 11(3), 293–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kennedy Krieger InstituteJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyJ. Iverson Riddle Developmental CenterMorgantonUSA

Personalised recommendations