Advertisement

The Severe Impairment Battery

  • Nick HutchinsonEmail author
Chapter
  • 529 Downloads

Abstract

The term dementia is an umbrella term used to describe a clinical syndrome that consists, primarily, of significant, progressive and irreversible deterioration of cognitive functioning (learning and memory, language, perception, executive functioning, attention) from a higher level of premorbid functioning, which is of significant severity to interfere with independent living skills across a range of domains (instrumental, domestic, self-care, social). Decline in cognitive functioning can also be accompanied by behavioural and personality changes [1, 2]. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [3] defines dementia as “a progressive and largely irreversible clinical syndrome that is characterised by a widespread impairment of mental function … as [dementia] progresses [people] can experience some or all of the following: memory loss, language impairment, disorientation, changes in personality, difficulties with activities of daily living, self-neglect, psychiatric symptoms and out-of-character behaviour” (p. 5). There are many different types of dementia caused by a number of diseases of the brain (for example Alzheimer’s disease, Frontotemporal degeneration, lewy body disease, vascular disease), the most common cause being Alzheimer’s disease [3]. In the most recently published diagnostic manuals [2] the ‘dementias’ are subsumed within the category of Major and Mild neurocognitive disorders.

References

  1. 1.
    Coope B. Dementia in the UK. In: Coope B, Richards FA, editors. ABC of dementia. Chichester: Wiley Blackwell; 2014. p. 1–4.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Neurocognitive Disorders. Virginia: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Dementia: supporting people with dementia and their carers in health and social care: clinical guideline. London: NICE; 2006.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Strydom A, Liningston G, King M, et al. Prevalence of dementia in intellectual disability using different diagnostic criteria. Br J Psychiatry. 2007;191:150–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    British Psychological Society (BPS). Dementia and people with intellectual disabilities: guidance on the assessment, diagnosis, interventions and support of people with intellectual disabilities who develop dementia. Leicester: The British Psychological Society; 2015. p. 10–2.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Prasher VP, Krishnan HR. Age of onset and duration of dementia in people with Down syndrome: integration of 98 reported cases on the literature. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1993;8:915–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Prasher VP. Age specific prevalence, thyroid dysfunction, and depressive symptomology in adults with Down syndrome and dementia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1995;10:25–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    McCarron M, McCallion P, Reilly E, et al. A prospective 14-year longitudinal follow-up of dementia in persons with Down syndrome. J Intellect Disabil Res. 2014;58:61–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Oliver C, Crayton L, Holland A, et al. A four year prospective study of age-related cognitive change in adults with Down syndrome. Psychol Med. 1998;28:1365–77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ball S, Holland AJ, Treppner P, et al. Executive dysfunction and its association with personality and behaviour changes in the development of Alzheimer’s disease in adults with Down syndrome and mild to moderate learning disabilities. Br J Clin Psychol. 2008;47:1–29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fonseca LM, Yokomizo JE, Bottino CM, et al. Frontal lobe degeneration in adults with Down syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease: a review. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2016;41:123–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Burt DB, Loveland KA, Primeaux-Hart S, et al. Dementia in adults with Down syndrome: diagnostic challenges. Am J Ment Retard. 1990;103:130–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Oliver C, Kalsy S. The assessment of dementia in people with intellectual disabilities: context, strategy and methods. In: Hogg J, Langa A, editors. Assessing adults with intellectual disabilities – a service providers guide. Hoboken: British Psychological Society and Blackwell Publishing; 2005. p. 99–103.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Saxton J, McGonigle-Gibson K, Swihart A, et al. Assessment of the severely impaired patient: description and validation of a new neuropsychological test battery. Psychol Assess J Consult Clin Psychol. 1990;2:298–303.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Saxton J, McGonigle KL, Swihart AA, et al. The severe impairment battery. London: Thames Valley Test Company; 1993.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR. Mini-mental state: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiat Res. 1975;12:189–98.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mattis S. DRS: dementia rating scale professional manual. New York: Psychological Assessment; 1988.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pippi M, Merocci P, Saxton J, et al. Neuropsychological assessment of the severely impaired elderly patient: validation of the Italian short version of the severe impairment battery. Gruppo di Studio sull’ Invecchiamento Cerebrale Della Societe Italiana di Gerontologica e Geriatria. Ageing (Milano). 1999;11:221–6.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Parlato V, Lavaronne A, Galeone F, et al. Validation of the Italian version of the severe impairment battery. Arch Psicol Neurol Psichiatr. 1992;53:371–85.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Llinas RJ, Lozano GM, Lopez OL. Validation of the Spanish version of the severe impairment battery. Neurologia. 1995;10:14–8.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Panisset M, Roudier M, Saxton J, et al. A battery of neuropsychological tests for severe dementia: an evaluation study. Presse Med. 1992;21:1271–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Konsta A, Bonti E, Parlapani E, et al. Development and validation of the Greek severe impairment battery. Int Psychogeriatr. 2014;26:591–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Spiegel R, Feldman C, Beutler M, et al. Experience with a German version of the severe impairment battery. Zeitschrift für Gerontopsychologie und Psychiatrie. 2001;14:75–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bergh S, Salbaek G, Engedal K. Reliability and validity of the Norwegian version of the severe impairment battery. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2008;23:896–902.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Suh GH, Kang CJ. Validation of the severe impairment battery for patients with Alzheimer’s disease in Korea. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006;21:626–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wajman JR, Ferreira Bertolucci PH. Brief cognitive assessment of Alzheimer’s disease in advanced stages: proposal for a Brazilian version of the short battery for severe impairment (SIB-8). Dement Neuropsychol. 2013;7:164–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Li C, Wu L, Wu X, Xu XF, et al. Reliability and validity of the Chinese version the severe impairment battery in evaluating cognitive impairment level in patients with dementia. Chinese Ment Health J. 2013;27:273–8.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ferris S, Ihl R, Ropert P, et al. Severe impairment battery language scale: a language assessment tool for Alzheimer’s disease patients. Alzheimers Dement. 2009;5:375–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    De Jonghe JFM, Wetzels RB, Mulders A, et al. Validity of the severe impairment short version. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2009;80:954–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Saxton J, Kastango KB, Hugonot-Diener L, et al. Development of a short-form of the severe impairment battery. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005;13:999–1005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ahn IS, Kim JH, Saxton J, et al. Reliability and validity of the severe impairment battery in Korean Alzheimer’s disease patients. In J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2007;22:682–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Homma A, Atareshi H, Kubota N, et al. Efficacy and safety of sustained release donepezil high dose versus immediate release donepezil standard dose in Japanese patients with severe Alzheimer’s disease: a randomised, double blind trial. J Alzheimer Dis. 2016;52:345–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cummings J, Jones R, Wilkinson D, et al. Effect of donepezil on cognition in severe Alzheimer’s disease: a pooled data analysis. J Alzheimer Dis. 2010;21:843–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Farlow MR, Grossberg GT, Sadowsky CH, et al. A 24-week open label extension study to investigate the long term safety, tolerability and efficacy of 13.3 mg/24 h rivastigmine patch in patients with severe Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2015;29:110–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Isaacson RS, Ferris S, Velting DM, et al. Cognitive efficacy (SIB) of 13.3 versus 4.6 mg/24 h rivastigmine patch in severe Alzheimer’s disease. Am J Alzheimer Dis Other Demen. 2016;31:270–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wang T, Huang Q, Reiman EM. Effects of memantine on clinical ratings, fluorodeoxyglucose positron tomography measurements, and cerebro-spinal fluid assays in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer’s disease: a 24 week randomised controlled trial. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2013;33:636–47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Grosberg GT, Manes F, Allegri RF. The safety, tolerability and efficacy of once daily memantine (28 mg): a multinational, randomised, double blind placebo controlled trial in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer’s disease taking cholinesterase inhibitors. CNS Drugs. 2013;27:469–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Burns A, Bernabai R, Bullock R, et al. The safety and efficacy of galantamine in severe Alzheimer’s disease (the SERAD study): a randomised, placebo controlled double blind trial. Lancet Neurol. 2009;8:39–47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wetzels RB, Zuidema SU, de Jonghe SV. Determinants of quality of life in nursing home residents with dementia. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2010;29:189–97.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Narme P, Clement S, Ehrle N, et al. Efficacy of musical intervention in dementia: evidence from a randomised controlled trial. J Alzheimer Dis. 2014;38:359–69.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ball SL, Holland AJ, Huppert FA, et al. CAMDEX-DS: the Cambridge examination for mental disorders of older people with Down’s syndrome and others with intellectual disabilities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2006.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Witts P, Elders S. The ‘severe impairment battery’: assessing cognitive ability in adults with Down syndrome. Br J Clin Psychol. 1998;37:213–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sparrow SS, Balla DA, Cicchetti DV. Vineland adaptive behaviour scales: interview edition–expanded form. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service; 1984.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    McKenzie K, Harte C, Sinclair E, et al. An examination of the severe impairment battery as a measure of cognitive decline in clients with Down’s syndrome. Aust J Learn Disabil. 2002;6:89–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Burt DB. Issues in dementia assessment methods. In: Prasher VP, editor. Neuropsychological assessments of dementia in down syndrome and intellectual disabilities. London: Springer; 2009. p. 32–4.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hutchinson N, Oakes P. Further evaluation of the severe impairment battery for the assessment of cognitive functioning in adults with down syndrome. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil. 2011;24:172–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Evenhuis HM. Evaluation of a screening instrument for dementia in ageing mentally retarded persons. J Intellect Disabil Res. 1992;36:337–47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Evenhuis HM. Further evaluation of the dementia questionnaire for persons with mental retardation (DMR). J Intellect Disabil Res. 1996;40:369–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Evenhuis HM, Kergen MMF, Eurlings AL. Dementia questionnaire for people with learning disabilities (DLD). San Antonio: Harcourt Assessment; 2007.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kalsy S, Oliver C. The assessment of dementia in people with intellectual disabilities: key assessment instruments. In:Assessing adults with British Psychological Society. Leicester: Blackwell; 2005.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Head E, Doran E, Nistor M, et al. Plasma amyloid-beta as a function of age, level of intellectual disability, and presence of dementia in Down syndrome. J Alzheimers Dis. 2011;23:399–409.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sabbagh MN, Chen K, Rogers J, et al. Florbetapir PET, FDG PET, and MRI in Down syndrome individuals with and without Alzheimer’s dementia. Alzheimers Dement. 2015;11:994–1004.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Handen BL, Cohen AD, Channamalappa U, et al. Imaging brain amyloid in non-demented young adults with Down syndrome using Pittsburgh compound B. Alzheimers Dement. 2012;8:496–501.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Powell D, Caban-Holt A, Jicha G, et al. Frontal white matter integrity in adults with Down syndrome with and without dementia. Neurobiol Aging. 2014;35:1562–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lott IT, Doran E, Nguyen VQ, et al. Down syndrome and dementia: seizures and cognitive decline. J Alzheimers Dis. 2012;29:177–85.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    McKenzie K, Paxton D, Matheson E, et al. Pathways to success. Learn Disabil Res Pract. 2000;3:16–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Jervis N, Prinsloo L. How we developed a multidisciplinary screening project for people with Down syndrome given the increased prevalence of early onset dementia. Br J Learn Disabil. 2008;36:13–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Cairns V, Lamb I, Smith E. Reflections upon the development of a dementia screening service for individuals with Down’s syndrome across the Hyndburn and Ribble Valley area. Br J Learn Disabil. 2010;39:198–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Prasher VP, Huxley A, Haque MS. A 24-week, double blind, placebo-controlled trial of donepezil in patients with Down syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease – pilot study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2002;17:270–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Prasher VP, Adams C, Holder R. Long term safety and efficacy of donepezil in the treatment of dementia in Alzheimer’s disease in adults with Down syndrome: open label study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2003;18:549–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    British Psychological Society (BPS). Guidance on neuropsychological testing with individuals who have intellectual disabilities. Leicester: British Psychological Society; 2015.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Krinsky-McHale SJ, Silverman W. Dementia and mild cognitive impairment in adults with intellectual disability: issues of diagnosis. Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2013;18:31–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Walsh DM, Doran E, Silverman W, Tournay A, et al. Rapid assessment of cognitive function in Down syndrome across intellectual level and dementia status. J Int Disabil Res. 2015;59:1071–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Health and Social Care, Department of Psychological Health and WellbeingUniversity of HullHullUK

Personalised recommendations