The Adaptive Behavior Dementia Questionnaire (ABDQ)

  • Vee P. PrasherEmail author


The concept of adaptive behavior has been defined by Heber in 1961 [1] as “the effectiveness with which the individual copes with the nature and social demands of this environment” and by Gunzberg in 1977 [2] as “the extent to which an individual is able and willing to conform to the customs, habits and standards of behavior prevailing in the society in which he lives; by the degree to which he is able to do so independently of direction and guidance and by the extent to which he participates constructively in the affairs and conduct of his community.” Adaptive behavior scales (ABSs) assess an individual’s current abilities as they are manifested in a given situation. Several measures and patterns of behavior are assessed in different situations to give an overall assessment. Individual items are grouped together into domains. Such domains include, for example, communication, dressing, feeding, and toileting.


Dementia Questionnaire Adaptive Behavior Scales (ABS) Total Weight Score (TWS) Cambridge Mental Disorders Of The Elderly Examination (CAMDEX) Split-half Validation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This chapter revised from original article. Prasher, V.P., Farooq, A, Holder, R (2004). The Adaptive Behavior Dementia Questionnaire (ABDQ): Screening Questionnaire for dementia of Alzheimer’s disease in adults with Down syndrome. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 25, 385–397. Printed with permission from Elsevier.

Copy of the ABDQ available from author.


  1. 1.
    Heber R. A manual on terminology and classification in mental retardation. Am J Ment Defic, Monograph Supplement; 1961.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gunzberg HC. Progress assessment chart of social and personal development. Stratford-upon-Avon: SEFA Publications; 1977.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nihira K, Foster R, Shellhas M, et al. AAMD adaptive behaviour scale, 1974 revision. Washington: American Association on Mental Deficiency; 1974.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schupf N, Silverman WP, Sterling RC, et al. Down syndrome, terminal illness and risk for dementia of the Alzheimer type. Brain Dysfunct. 1989;2:181–8.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brown FR III, Greer MK, Aylward EH, et al. Intellectual and adaptive functioning in individuals with Down syndrome in relation to age and environmental placement. Paediatrics. 1990;85:450–2.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rasmussen DE, Sobsey D. Age, adaptive behavior, and Alzheimer disease in Down syndrome: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Am J Ment Retard. 1994;99:151–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Burt DB, Loveland KA, Chen Y-W, et al. Aging in adults with Down syndrome: report from a longitudinal study. Am J Ment Retard. 1995;100:262–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Roeden JM, Zitman FG. A longitudinal comparison of cognitive and adaptive changes in individuals with Down’s syndrome and an intellectually disabled control group. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil. 1997;10:289–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Prasher VP, Chung MC, Haque MS. Longitudinal changes in adaptive behaviour and Down syndrome: interim findings from a longitudinal study. Am J Ment Retard. 1998;103:40–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Oilver C, Kalsy S, McQuilian S. Behavioural excesses and deficits associated with dementia in adults who have Down syndrome. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil. 2011;24:208–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zigman W, Schupf N, Urv T, et al. Incidence and temporal patterns of adaptive behavior change in adults with mental retardation. Am J Ment Retard. 2002;3:161–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kirk LJ, Hick R, Laraway A. Assessing dementia in people with learning disabilities. J Intellect Disabil. 2006;10:357–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ghezzo A, Salvioli S, Solimando MC, et al. Age-related changes of adaptive and neuropsychological features in persons with down syndrome. PLoS One. 2014;9:e113111.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Makary AT, Testa R, Tonge BJ, et al. Association between adaptive behaviour and age in adults with Down syndrome without dementia: examining the range and severity of adaptive behaviour problems. J Intellect Disabil Res. 2015;59:689–702.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nihira K, Foster R, Shellhaas M, et al. Adaptive behavior scales. Washington: American Association of Mental Deficiency; 1969.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Isett RD, Spreat S. Test and retest and interratrer reliability of the AAMD adaptive behavior scale. Am J Ment Defic. 1979;84:93–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fogelman CJ, editor. AAMD adaptive behaviour scale manual. Washington: American Association on Mental Deficiency; 1975.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Miniszek NA. Development of Alzheimer’s disease in Down’s syndrome individuals. Am J Ment Defic. 1983;87:377–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cosgrave MP, Tyrrell J, McCarron M, et al. Determinants of aggression, and adaptive and maladaptive behaviour in older people with Down’s syndrome with and without dementia. J Intellect Disabil Res. 1999;43:393–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Collacott RA. The effect of age and residential placement on adaptive behaviour of adults with Down’s syndrome. Br J Psychiatry. 1992;161:675–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Prasher VP, Chung MC. Causes of age-related decline in adaptive behaviour in adults with Down syndrome; differential diagnoses of dementia. Am J Ment Retard. 1996;101:175–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Collacott RA. Epilepsy, dementia and adaptive behaviour in Down’s syndrome. J Intellect Disabil Res. 1993;37:153–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Prasher V. Adaptive behavior. In: Janicki MP, Dalton AJ, editors. Dementia, aging, and intellectual disabilities. Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis; 1998. p. 157–78.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Roth M, Huppert FA, Tym E, et al. CAMDEX. The Cambridge examination for mental disorders of the elderly. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1988.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    World Health Organisation. ICD-10 symptom checklist for mental disorders. Version 1.1. Geneva: WHO; 1994.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    World Health Organisation. The tenth revision of the international classification of diseases and related health problems (ICD-10). Geneva: WHO; 1992.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Prasher VP. Adaptive behavior. In: Janicki MP, Dalton AJ, editors. Dementia, aging and intellectual disabilities: a handbook. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis; 1999. p. 157–82.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zigman WB, Schupf N, Silverman WP, et al. Changes in adaptive functioning of adults with developmental disabilities. Aust N Z J Develop Disabil. 1989;15:277–87.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Aylward EH, Burt DB, Thorpe LU, et al. Diagnosis of dementia in individuals with intellectual disability. J Intellect Disabil Res. 1997;41:152–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Evenhuis HM, Kengen MMF, Eurling HAL. Dementia questionnaire for mentally retarded persons. Zwammerdam: Hooge Burch; 1990.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Prasher VP. Dementia questionnaire for persons with mental retardation (DMR). Modified criteria for adults with Down syndrome. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil. 1997;10:54–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Deb S, Braganza J. Comparison of rating scales for the diagnosis of dementia in adults with Down’s syndrome. J Intellect Disabil Res. 1999;43:400–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Prasher VP, Huxley A, Haque MS. A 24-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of donepezil in patients with Down syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease—pilot study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2002;17:270–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Prasher VP, Sachdeva N, Adams C, et al. Rivastigmine transdermal patches in the treatment of dementia in AD in adults with Down syndrome-pilot study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2013;28:219–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hanney M, Prasher V, Williams N, et al. Memantine for dementia in adults older than 40 years with Down’s syndrome (MEADOWS): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2012;379:52–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Prasher VP, Adams C, Holder R. Long term safety and efficacy of donepezil in the treatment of dementia in Alzheimer’s disease in adults with Down syndrome. Open label study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2003;18:549–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gedye A. Manual for the dementia scale for Down syndrome. Vancouver: Gedye Research and Consulting; 1995.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Burt DB, Aylward EH. Test battery for the diagnosis of dementia in individuals with intellectual disability. J Intellect Disabil Res. 2000;44:175–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The GreenfieldsBirminghamUK

Personalised recommendations