Advertisement

Hayek’s ‘More Effective Form’ Eugenics?

  • Robert Leeson
Chapter
Part of the Archival Insights into the Evolution of Economics book series (AIEE)

Abstract

In 1977, Hayek appeared to express aspirations for the South American Operation Condor countries he was about to visit—the search for ‘better ways of organizing government than Social Darwinism applies the we have.’ He obviously hoped to extrapolate from these military dictatorships to the rest of the world—including the United States. In 1978, Hayek defended the ‘civilization’ of apartheid from the American ‘fashion’ of ‘human rights.’ There are also similarities between the sentiments expressed by Hayek, Mises, and Rothbard and those expressed by Hitler. Rothbard published Egalitarianism as a Revolt Against Nature; and according to Hayek, in ‘southwest England, the class distinctions are very sharp, but they’re not resented. They’re still accepted as part of the natural order.’ This chapter examines Hayek’s racism and anti-Semitism in the context of the eugenics literature.

Keywords

Rothbard Human Rights Oral History Research Voter Registration Activities Saturday Night Massacre 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Bibliography

  1. Angner, E. 2002. The History of Hayek’s Theory of Cultural Evolution. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 33.4: 695–718.Google Scholar
  2. Blackmon, D. A. 1999. Silent Partner: How the South’s Fight To Uphold Segregation Was Funded Up North. Wall Street Journal 11.1, June: A8. http://faculty.ferris.edu/ISAR/Institut/pioneer/silent.htm
  3. Block, W. 1995. In Rockwell, L. H. Jr. (Ed.) Murray Rothbard: In Memorandum. Auburn, Alabama: Ludwig von Mises Institute.Google Scholar
  4. Block, W. 2000. Libertarianism vs Objectivism; A Response to Peter Schwartz. Reason Papers 26: 39–62. http://www.reasonpapers.com/pdf/26/rp_26_4.pdf
  5. Blumert, B. S. 2008. Bagels, Barry Bonds, and Rotten Politicians. Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute.Google Scholar
  6. Blundell, J. 2001. Waging the War of Ideas. London: IEA. https://iea.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Blundell-interactive.pdf
  7. Blundell, J. 2014. IHS and the Rebirth of Austrian Economics: Some Reflections on 1974–1976. Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics 17.1, Spring: 92–107. https://mises.org/library/ihs-and-rebirth-austrian-economics-some-reflections-1974%E2%80%931976
  8. Bork, R. H. 2013. Saving Justice: Watergate, the Saturday Night Massacre, and Other Adventures of a Solicitor General. New York: Encounter Books.Google Scholar
  9. Branden, N. 1989. Judgement Day: My Years with Ayn Rand. New York: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  10. Buchanan, J. and Wagner, R. E. 1977. Democracy in Deficit: The Political Legacy of Lord Keynes. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  11. Caldwell, B. 2000. The Emergence of Hayek’s Ideas on Cultural Evolution. Review of Austrian Economics 13.1, February: 5–22.Google Scholar
  12. Caldwell, B. 2001. Hodgson on Hayek: A Critique. Cambridge Journal of Economics 25: 539–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Caldwell, B. 2006. Popper and Hayek: Who Influenced Whom?. In Jarvie, I. C., Milford, K. and Miller, D. W. (Eds.) Karl Popper: A Centenary Assessment Volume I. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Company: 111–124.Google Scholar
  14. Caldwell, B. 2011. The Chicago School, Hayek, and Neoliberalism. In Van Horn, R., Mirowski, P. and Stapleford, T. Eds. Building Chicago Economics New Perspectives on the History of America’s Most Powerful Economics Program. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press.Google Scholar
  15. Caldwell, B. and Montes, L. 2014a. Friedrich Hayek and His Visits to Chile. CHOPE Working Paper No. 2014–12. August.Google Scholar
  16. Caldwell, B. and Montes, L. 2014b. Friedrich Hayek and His Visits to Chile. Review of Austrian Economics. First online: 26 September 2014.Google Scholar
  17. Caldwell, B. and Montes, L. 2015. Friedrich Hayek and His Visits to Chile. Review of Austrian Economics 28.3, September: 261–309.Google Scholar
  18. Carlson, E. 2013. Joe Rochefort’s War: The Odyssey of the Codebreaker Who Outwitted Yamamoto at Midway. Annapolis Maryland: Naval Institute Press.Google Scholar
  19. Carver, T. N. 1949. Recollections of an Unplanned Life. Los Angeles: The Ward Ritchie Press.Google Scholar
  20. Connolly, K. 2005. Hitler’s Mentally Ill Cousin Killed in Nazi Gas Chamber. Daily Telegraph 19 January.Google Scholar
  21. Cubitt, C. 2006. A Life of August von Hayek. Bedford, England: Authors on line.Google Scholar
  22. Dahrendorf, R. 1967. Society and Democracy in Germany. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  23. Dahrendorf, R. 1995. LSE: A History of the London School of Economics and Political Science, 1895–1995. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. De Tocqueville, A. 1955.[1856] The Old Regime and the Revolution. New York: Anchor Books.Google Scholar
  25. De Tocqueville, A. 2007.[1838] Democracy in America: The Complete and Unabridged Volumes I and II. New York: Bantam. Translated by Henry Reeve.Google Scholar
  26. Dewan, S. K. and Hart, A. 2004. Thurmond’s Biracial Daughter Seeks to Join Confederacy Group. New York Times 2 July. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/07/02/us/thurmond-s-biracial-daughter-seeks-to-join-confederacy-group.html
  27. Doherty, B. 2007. Radicals for Capitalism: A Freewheeling History of the Modern. American Libertarian Movement. New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
  28. Ebenstein, A. 2003. Friedrich Hayek: A Biography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  29. Faludi, S. 1993. Backlash: The Undeclared War against American Women. London: Vintage.Google Scholar
  30. Farrant, A. and McPhail, E. 2017. Hayek, Thatcher, and the Muddle of the Middle. In Leeson, R. (Ed.) Hayek: A Collaborative Biography Part IX The Divine Right of the Market. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  31. Farrant, A. McPhail, E. and Berger, S. 2012. Preventing the “Abuses” of Democracy: Hayek, the “Military Usurper” and Transitional Dictatorship in Chile? American Journal of Economics and Sociology 71.3: 513–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fischer, C. 2002. The Rise of the Nazis. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Friedman, M. 1995. Interview with Lanny Ebenstein.Google Scholar
  34. Frye, C. E. 1966. Carl Schmitt’s Concept of the Political. Journal of Politics 28.4, November: 818–830.Google Scholar
  35. Greaves, B. 1985. Foreword to Mises, L. 1985 [1927]. Liberalism in the Classical Tradition. Auburn: Mises Institute. Translated by Ralph Raico.Google Scholar
  36. Greaves, B. 1998. Mises’s Bibliographer: An Interview with Bettina Bien Greaves. Austrian Economics Newsletter 18.4, Winter. https://mises.org/library/misess-bibliographer-interview-bettina-bien-greaves
  37. Hayek, F. A. 1966. Misconception of Human Rights as Positive Claims. Farmand Anniversary Issue II/12: 32–35.Google Scholar
  38. Hayek, F. A. 1971. Nature versus Nurture Again. Encounter February: 81–83.Google Scholar
  39. Hayek, F. A. 1975. In Haberler, G. (Ed.) A Discussion with Friedrich A. von Hayek: held at the American Enterprise Institute on April 9, 1975. Washington: American Enterprise Institute.Google Scholar
  40. Hayek, F. A. 1976. Law, Legislation and Liberty, Volume 2: The Mirage of Social Justice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  41. Hayek, F. A. 1978. Oral History Interviews. Centre for Oral History Research, University of California, Los Angeles. http://oralhistory.library.ucla.edu/
  42. Hayek, F. A. 1992a [1977]. The Road from Serfdom. Reason July. http://reason.com/archives/1992/07/01/the-road-from-serfdom/5
  43. Hayek, F. A. 1992b. The Fortunes of Liberalism Essays on Austrian Economics and the Ideal of Freedom The Collected Works of F.A. Hayek. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Edited by Peter Klein.Google Scholar
  44. Hayek, F. A. 1994. Hayek on Hayek: an Autobiographical Dialogue. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Edited by Stephen Kresge and Leif Wenar.Google Scholar
  45. Hayek, F. A. 1999 [1952] The Sensory Order An Inquiry into the Foundations of Theoretical Psychology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  46. Hayek, F. A. 2007 [1944] The Road to Serfdom: The Definitive Edition. The Collected Works of F.A. Hayek. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Edited by Bruce Caldwell.Google Scholar
  47. Hayek, F. A. 2013. Law Legislation and Liberty A New Statement of the Liberal Principles of Justice and Political Economy. Oxford, England: Routledge Classics.Google Scholar
  48. Heller, A. C. 2009. Ayn Rand and the World She Made. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  49. Herrnstein, R. and Murray, C. 1994. The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  50. Hildebrandt, S. 2013. Wolfgang Bargmann (1906–1978) and Heinrich von Hayek (1900–1969): Careers in Anatomy Continuing Through German National Socialism to Postwar Leadership. Annals of Anatomy Anatomischer Anzeiger 195.4, July: 283–295. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0940960213000782
  51. Hildebrand, S. 2016. The Anatomy of Murder Ethical Transgressions and Anatomical Science during the Third Reich. New York: Berghahn.Google Scholar
  52. Hill, R. 2000. Lord Acton. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Hitler, A. 1939.[1925] Mein Kampf. London: Hurst and Blackett. Translated by James Murphy.Google Scholar
  54. Horwitz, S. 2011. How Did We Get Here? Or, Why Do 20 Year Old Newsletters Matter So Damn Much? Bleeding Heart Libertarians 23 December. http://bleedingheartlibertarians.com/2011/12/how-did-we-get-here-or-why-do-20-year-old-newsletters-matter-so-damn-much/
  55. Hülsmann, J. G. 2007. Mises: The Last Knight of Liberalism. Auburn, Alabama: Ludwig von Mises Institute.Google Scholar
  56. Hutt, W. H. 1971. Politically Impossible an Essay on the Supposed Electoral Obstacles Impeding the Translation of Economic Analysis into Policy or Why Politicians Do Not Take Economic Advice. London: Institute of Economic Affairs.Google Scholar
  57. Klausinger, H. 2010. Hayek on Practical Business Cycle Research: A Note. In Hagemann, H., Nishizawa, T., Ikeda, Y. (Eds.) Austrian Economics in Transition: From Carl Menger to Friedrich Hayek. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan: 218–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Klausinger, H. (Ed.) 2012. Editorial Notes. Business Cycles Volume VII The Collected Works of F.A. Hayek. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  59. Koonz, C. 2003. The Nazi Conscience. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Kuehnelt-Leddihn, E. R. 1992. The Road from Serfdom. National Review 44.8: 32.Google Scholar
  61. Leeson, R. 1994. Salvation from the ‘African Hole.’ Australian Financial Review 11 January: 15.Google Scholar
  62. Leeson, R. (Ed.) 2013 Hayek: a Collaborative Biography Part I Influences From Mises to Bartley. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  63. Leeson, R. (Ed.) 2015. Hayek: A Collaborative Biography Part II Austria, America and the Rise of Hitler, 1899–1933. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  64. Leeson, R. 2017a. Hayek: A Collaborative Biography Part X1 The Constitution of Liberty ‘Shooting in Cold Blood’: Hayek’s Plan for the Future of Democracy. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  65. Leeson, R. 2017b. Hayek: A Collaborative Biography Part VII ‘Market Free Play with an Audience’: Hayek’s Encounters with Fifty Knowledge Communities. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  66. Levin, M. 1995. Why We Fight. Rothbard Rockwell Report. http://www.unz.org/Pub/RothbardRockwellReport-1995aug-00008
  67. Levin, M. 1997. Why Race Matters: Race Differences and What They Mean. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  68. Levin, M. 1998. Bimbo Kratato. Rothbard Rockwell Report April: 14–16.Google Scholar
  69. Lusane, C. 2003. Hitler’s Black Victims: The Historical Experiences of Afro-Germans, European Blacks, African and African Americans in the Nazi Era. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  70. Machlup, F. 1974. Hayek’s Contribution to Economics. Swedish Journal of Economics 76, December: 498–531.Google Scholar
  71. Mandela, N. 1993. Address to the Nation. http://www.blackpast.org/1993-nelson-mandela-address-nation
  72. Maoláin, C. 1987 (Ed.) The Radical Right: A World Directory. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  73. Menger, C. 2007 [1871]. Principles of Economics. Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute. Translated by James Dingwall and Bert F. Hoselitz.Google Scholar
  74. Mints, F. P. 1985. The Liberty Lobby and the American Right: Race, Conspiracy, and Culture. Westport: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  75. Mises, L. 1951 [1922]. Socialism: An Economic and Sociological Analysis. New Haven: Yale University Press. Translated by J. Kahane.Google Scholar
  76. Mises, L. 1969 [1922]. Socialism: An Economic and Sociological Analysis. London: Jonathan Cape. Translated by J. Kahane.Google Scholar
  77. Mises, L. 1985 [1927]. Liberalism in the Classical Tradition. Auburn, Alabama: Mises Institute. Translated by Ralph Raico.Google Scholar
  78. Mises, L. 2007 [1958]. Mises and Rothbard letters to Ayn Rand. Journal of Libertarian Studies 21.4, Winter: 11–16.Google Scholar
  79. Mises, L. 2010 [1944]. Omnipotent Government: The Rise of the Total State and Total War. Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute.Google Scholar
  80. Mises, M. 1984. My Life with Ludwig von Mises. Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute.Google Scholar
  81. Montes, L. 2015. Friedman’s Two Visits to Chile in Context. http://jepson.richmond.edu/conferences/summer-institute/papers2015/LMontesSIPaper.pdf
  82. North, G. K. 1987. The Plague Has Come at Last. http://soamc.org/tfh/FILES/Abortion_Gays_and_AIDS
  83. North, G. K. 2010. It All Began with Fred Schwartz. In Block, W. (Ed.) I Chose Liberty: Autobiographies of Contemporary Libertarians. Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute.Google Scholar
  84. Olson, W. 1998. Invitation to a Stoning: Getting Cozy with Theocrats. Reason 1 November.Google Scholar
  85. Perham, M. 1941. Africans and British Rule. AWS: London.Google Scholar
  86. Peterson, J. 2014. Hated Was My Muse. Liberty.me. https://wti.liberty.me/hatred-was-my-muse/
  87. Phibbs, H. 2004. Laurence Hayek. Independent 7 September. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/laurence-hayek-550426.html
  88. Pinochet, A. 1982. The Crucial Day September 11 1973. Santiago, Chile: Editorial Renacimiento.Google Scholar
  89. Raico, R. 2012. Classical Liberalism and the Austrian School. Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute.Google Scholar
  90. Rand, A. 1943. The Fountainhead. Bobbs-Merrill: Indianapolis.Google Scholar
  91. Rand, A. 1958. Atlas Shrugged. London: Random House.Google Scholar
  92. Richardson, R. 2000. Review of Why Race Matters: Race Differences and What They Mean by Michael Levin. Ethics 110.4,: 847–848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Robbins, L. 2012 [1931]. Foreword. In Hayek, F. A. Business Cycles Volume VII The Collected Works of F.A. Hayek. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Edited by Hansjörg Klausinger.Google Scholar
  94. Robin, C. 2011. The Reactionary Mind: Conservatism from Edmund Burke to Sarah Palin. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rockefeller, D. 2002. Memoirs. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  96. Rockwell, L. H. Jr. 1991. COLUMN RIGHT: It’s Safe Streets Versus Urban Terror: In the ‘50s, Rampant Crime Didn’t Exist Because Offenders Feared What the Police Would Do. Los Angeles Times 10 March. http://articles.latimes.com/1991-03-10/opinion/op-178_1_safe-streets
  97. Rockwell, L. H. Jr. 1994. The Cognitive State. Rothbard-Rockwell Report December. http://www.unz.org/Pub/RothbardRockwellReport-1994dec-00018
  98. Rockwell, L. H. Jr. 2017. Break up the USA. Mises Wire 20 February. https://mises.org/blog/break-usa
  99. Rothbard, M. N. 1988. The Essential Von Mises. Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute.Google Scholar
  100. Rothbard, M. N. 1992. Right-Wing Populism: A Strategy for the Paleo Movement. Rothbard Rockwell Report 3.1. http://www.unz.org/Pub/RothbardRockwellReport-1992jan-00005
  101. Rothbard, M. N. 1993. Who Are the Terrorists? Rothbard Rockwell Report 4.8, August. http://www.unz.org/Pub/RothbardRockwellReport-1993aug-00001
  102. Rothbard, M. N. 1994a. Race! That Murray Book. Rothbard Rockwell Report 5.12, December. http://www.unz.org/Pub/RothbardRockwellReport-1994dec-00001
  103. Rothbard, M. 1994b. Nations by Consent: Decomposing the Nation-State. Journal of Libertarian Studies 11.1, Fall: 1–10.Google Scholar
  104. Rothbard, M. N. 1994c. A New Strategy for Liberty. Rothbard Rockwell Report 5.10, October. http://www.unz.org/Pub/RothbardRockwellReport-1994oct-00001
  105. Rothbard, M. N. 1994d. Life in the Old Right. Chronicles August. https://www.lewrockwell.com/1970/01/murray-n-rothbard/life-in-the-old-right/
  106. Rothbard, M. N. 1994e. Invade the World. Rothbard Rockwell Report 5.9, September. http://www.unz.org/Pub/RothbardRockwellReport-1994sep-00001
  107. Rothbard, M. N. 2000. Egalitarianism as a Revolt Against Nature and Other Essays. Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute. Second Edition.Google Scholar
  108. Rothbard, M. N. 2002. The Ethics of Liberty. Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute.Google Scholar
  109. Rothbard, M. N. 2011. Economic Controversies. Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute.Google Scholar
  110. Shirer, W. L. 1960. Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. London: Secker and Warburg.Google Scholar
  111. Skidelsky, R. 1975. Oswald Mosley. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  112. Speer, A. 1970. Inside the Third Reich. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  113. Tietze, T. 2015. Anders Breivik, Fascism and the Neoliberal Inheritance. In Leeson, R. (Ed.) Hayek a Collaborative Biography Part VI Good Dictators, Sovereign Producers and Hayek’s ‘Ruthless Consistency.’ Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  114. Tignor, R. L. 2006. Arthur Lewis and the Birth of Development Economics. Princeton/Oxford: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  115. Turner, H. A. 1985. German Big Business and the Rise of Hitler. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  116. Twaddle, M. 1991. Margery Perham and Africans and British Rule: A Wartime Publication. In Bull, M. and Smith, A. (Eds.) Margery Perham and British Rule in Africa. London: Frank Cass.Google Scholar
  117. von Monakow, C. and S. Kitabayashi. 1919. Schizophrenie und Plexus Chorioidei. Schweizer Archiv für Neurologie und Psychiatrie 5: 378–392.Google Scholar
  118. Watters, S. 2005. Von Habsburg on Presidents, Monarchs, Dictators. Women’s Wear Daily 28 June. http://www.wwd.com/eye/people/von-habsburg-on-presidents-monarchs-dictators
  119. Weber, M. 1995. Murray Rothbard, 1926–1995. Institute for Historical Review 15.3, May–June: 33–34. http://www.ihr.org/jhr/v15/v15n3p33_weber.html
  120. White, L. H. 2008. Did Hayek and Robbins Deepen the Great Depression? Journal of Money, Credit and Banking 40: 751–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Wieser, F. 1983 [1926]. The Law of Power. University of Nebraska-Lincoln: Bureau of Business Research.Google Scholar
  122. Wright, S. A. 2007. Patriots, Politics, and the Oklahoma City Bombing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Wright, T. C. and Oñate, R. 2005. Chilean Diaspora. In Ember, C. R., Ember, M. and Skoggard, I. (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World Volume II. New York: Springer: 57–65.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Leeson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EconomicsStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

Personalised recommendations