Controlled Reproduction of Farmed Siberian Sturgeon Acipenser baerii Brandt

  • Patrick WilliotEmail author
  • Mikhail Chebanov


The present chapter is a synthesis of the available data related to the management of the reproduction of the Siberian sturgeon under farmed conditions. Some reproduction-related biological characteristics are briefly quoted. Preselection of potential brood fish is related in detail as well as pre-spawning holding regime with a focus on water temperature. Definite selection of reputed ready-to-spawn brood fish is described. As for preselection, the usefulness for the definite selection of the rate of migration of the germinal vesicle towards the animal pole (the polarization index, PI) is presented. The two tools for males (echography and texture of testis) are evoked. With regard to females, plasmatic indicators and observations of ovarian follicles are described with a focus on the powerful of the in vitro maturation competence (IVMC). The different alternatives for hormonal stimulation, including some unusual practices when management somewhat failed, are described in conjunction with time scale working agenda. Collection, observations, stocking and management of gametes are successively presented. The many possibilities for the so-called de-adhesive treatment are described as post-fertilization treatment. Some data on yields and perspectives are discussed. In general, we provide practical comments and a lot of illustration both with photos and graphs.


Acipenser baerii Controlled reproduction Preselection criteria Water temperature Polarization index Selection of ready-to-spawn brood fish In vitro maturation competence Hormonal stimulation Collection of gametes Management of gametes De-adhesive treatment 



We would like to thank Marie-Hélène Pellegrini for her decisive help in rebuilding most of the figures.


  1. Akimova NV (1985) Gametogenez i polovaya tsiklichnost sibirskogo osetra v estestvennykh i eksperimentalnykh usloviyakh (gametogenesis and reproductive cyclicity of the Siberian sturgeon in natural and experimental conditions) in Osobennosti reproduktivnykh tsiklov u ryb v vodoemakh raznykh shirot (characteristics of reproductive cycles of fish in water bodies at different latitudes), Moscow, Nauka, pp 111–122Google Scholar
  2. Charlon N, Williot P (1978) Elevage d’esturgeons de repeuplement et de consommation en URSS. Bull Cent Etud Rech Sci, Biarritz, 12 (1): 7–156Google Scholar
  3. Chebanov MS (1998) Conservation of genetic diversity: enhancement and living gene bank. Action before extinction. Proceedings of the International Conference on Conservation of fish genetic diversity, Vancouver, Benwell-Atkins Ltd. pp 163–173Google Scholar
  4. Chebanov MS, Galich EV (2009) Ultrasound diagnostic for sturgeon broodstock management. South Branch Federal Center of Selection and Genetics for Aquaculture, Krasnodar, 116p. ISBN:978-5-93491-259-9Google Scholar
  5. Chebanov MS, Galich EV (2011) Sturgeon hatchery manual. FAO fisheries and aquaculture technical paper. No. 558. FAO, Ankara, 303pGoogle Scholar
  6. Chebanov MS, Savelyeva EA (1999) New strategies for brood stock management of sturgeon in the sea of Azov basin in response to changes in patterns of spawning migration. J Appl Ichthyol 15:183–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chebanov MS, Karnaukhov GI, Galich EV, Chmir YN (2002) Hatchery stock enhancement and conservation of sturgeon, with an emphasis on the Azov Sea populations. J Appl Ichthyol 18:463–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Conte FS, Doroshov SI, Strange EM (1988) Hatchery manual for the white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus Richardson with application to other North American Acipenseridae. Cooperative Extension University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural resources, Fresno, CA, 104p. Publication no 3322Google Scholar
  9. Debus L, Winkler M, Billard R (2002) Structure of micropyle surface on oocytes and caviar grains in sturgeons. Int Rev Hydrobiol 87:585–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dettlaff TA, Davydova SI (1979) Differential sensitivity of cells of follicular epithelium and oocytes in the stellate sturgeon to unfavorable condition, and correlating influence of triiodothyronine. Gen Comp Endocrinol 39: 236–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dettlaff TA, Ginsburg AS, Schmalhausen OI, (1993) Sturgeon fishes. Developmental biology and aquaculture. Springer, Berlin, 300pCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Doroshov SI, Lutes PB (1984) Preliminary data on the induction of ovulation in the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). Aquaculture 38:221–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Doroshov SI, Moberg GP, Van Eenennaam JP (1997) Observations on the reproductive cycle of cultured white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus. Environ Biol Fish 48:265–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fujii K, Hirose K, Hara A, Shiraishi M, Maruyama T (1991) Use of vitellogenin level as a maturational indicator for artificial spawning of cultured hybrid sturgeon, Huso huso x Acipenser ruthenus. In: Williot P (ed) Acipenser. Cemagref Publ., Antony, pp 381–388Google Scholar
  15. Gerbilsky NL (1941) Metod gipofizarnykh in’ektsiy i ego rol’ v rybovodstve (Method of hypophysial injections and its significance for fish culture). In: Gerbilsky NL (ed) Metod gipofizarnykh in’ektsiy i ego rol’ v vosproizvodstve rybnykh zapasov (Method of hypophysial injections and its significance for reproduction of fish stocks). Leningrad University Press, Leningrad, pp 5–36 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  16. Ginzburg AS, Dettlaff TA (1969) Razvitiye osetrovykh ryb. Sozrenaniye yaits, oplodotvoreniye i embriogenez (Development of sturgeons. Oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryogenesis). Publishing house “Nauka”, Moscow, 134pGoogle Scholar
  17. Gisbert E, Williot P (2002) Influence of storage duration of ovulated eggs prior to fertilisation on the early ontogenesis of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) and Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). Int Rev Hydrobiol 87:605–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Goncharov BF (1993) Duration of oocyte maturation time in vitro as a criterion for selecting sturgeon spawners for breeding. In: Dettlaff TA, Ginsburg AS, Schmalhausen OI (eds) Sturgeon fishes, developmental biology and aquaculture. Springer, Berlin, pp 218–219Google Scholar
  19. Goncharov B, Williot P, Le Menn F (1999) Morphological and physiological characteristics of the ovarian follicles of farmed Siberian sturgeon and their importance for predicting artificial reproduction success. Russ J Dev Biol 30(1):46–54Google Scholar
  20. Goncharov B, Williot P, Le Menn F (2001) Comparison of the effects of gonadotropic preparations of the carp and stellate sturgeon pituitaries on in vivo and in vitro oocyte maturation in the Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii Brandt. Russ J Dev Biol 32:320–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jalabert B (1978) Production of fertilizable oocytes from follicles of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii) following in vitro maturation and ovulation. Ann Biol Anim Biochim Biophys 18(2B):461–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kabir M, Bani A (2011) Determination of cutting point of oviduct in minimally invasive surgical technique in Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) and Starry sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus). AACL Bioflux 4(3):268–272Google Scholar
  23. Kazanskiy BN (1981) Ekologo-evolyutsionniye printsipy vosproizvodstva populyatsiy. (Ecological-evolutionist principles for the reproduction of fish populations). Vestnik leningradskogo Universiteta, Zoologiya 21:52–58Google Scholar
  24. Kazanskiy BN, Feklov Yu A, Podushka SB et al (1978) Ekspress-metod opredeleniya steleni zrelosti gonad u proizvoditeley osetrovykh. (Express method to assess the maturation advancement of the gonads of the ready-to-spawn sturgeons). Rybn Khoz 1: 24–27 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  25. Khakimoullin AA (1979) Prodolzhitel’nost sozrevaniya sibirskogo osetra posle gipofizarnoyin’ektsii. (Latency in the Siberian sturgeon post powder hypophysis injection). Rybn Khoz 8:20Google Scholar
  26. Khakimoullin AA, Parfenov NA, Boublikova MA (1980) Obeskleivaniye ikry sibirskogo osetra v zavodsikh usloviyakh (De-adhesiveness method to neutralise the viscosity of Siberian sturgeon eggs). Rybn Khoz 8:38Google Scholar
  27. Kopeika EF, Williot P, Goncharov BF (1999) Factors affecting the sperm motility in the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri Brandt). J Appl Ichthyol 15:314–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kornienko GG (1973) Early degenerative changes in the oocyte’s of the Kuban sevryuga (Acipenser stellatus). J Ichthiol 15:503–507Google Scholar
  29. Le Menn F, Pelissero C (1991) Histological and ultrastructural studies of oogenesis of the Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii. In: Williot P (ed) Acipenser. Cemagref Publ. Antony, France, pp113–127Google Scholar
  30. Leprêtre E, Anglade I, Williot P , Vandesande F, Tramu, Kah O (1993) Comparative distribution of Mammalian GnRH (Gonadotrophin - Releasing Hormone) and Chick. GnRH-II in the brain of the immature Siberian Sturgeon (Acipenser baeri). J Comp Neurol 336: 2–17Google Scholar
  31. Lescheid DW, Powell JFF, Fischer WH et al (1995) Mammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) identified by primary structure in Russian sturgeon, Acipenser gueldenstaedti. Regul Pept 55:299–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Linares-Cazenave J, Kroll KJ, van Eenennaam JP et al (2003) Effect of ovarian stage on plasma vitellogenin and calcium in cultured white sturgeon. Aquaculture 221:645–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lu X, Webb MAH, Talbott MJ et al (2011) A study of biochemical parameters associated with ovarian atresia and quality of caviar in farmed white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy. Aquaculture 315:298–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lutes PB, Doroshov SI, Chapman F et al (1987) Morpho-physiological predictors of ovulatory success in white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus Richardson. Aquaculture 66:43–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Matishov GG, Ponomarev SV, Ponomareva EN (2007) Innovatsionniye tekhnologii industrial’noy akvakul’tury v osetrovodstve. (Innovation technologies of industrial aquaculture in sturgeon breeding). In: Ponomaryov SV (ed) Rostov-on-Don, Izdatel’stvo Yuzhnyi Nauchnyi Tsentr Rossiyskaya Akademiya Nauk, 368pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  36. Nagahama Y (1987) Endocrine control of oocyte maturation. In: Norris DO, Jones RE (eds) Hormones and Reproduction in Fishes, amphibians, and reptiles. Plenum Press, New York and London, pp 171–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Podushka SB (1986) Sposob polucheniya ikry ot samok osetrovykh ryb. (Methods of egg obtaining in sturgeon with life preservation). Authors license 1412035. Committee on Inventions and Discoveries, Council of Ministers of the USSR (in Russian)Google Scholar
  38. Podushka SB (1999) New method to obtain sturgeon eggs. J Appl Ichthyol 15(4–5):319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Quérat B, Sellouk A, Salmon C (2000) Phylogenetic analysis of the vertebrate glycoprotein hormone family including new sequences of sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) β subunits of the two gonadotropins and the thyroid-stimulating hormone. Biol Reprod 63:222–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ruban GI (2005) The Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii Brandt. Species structure and ecology. World Sturgeon Conservation Society, Special publication no 1, Books on Demand, Norderstedt, Germany, 203pGoogle Scholar
  41. Servid SA, Talbott MJ, Van Eenennaam JP, Doroshov SI, Struffenegger P, Webb MAH, Cavinato AG (2011) Rapid noninvasive characterization of ovarian follicular atresia in cultured white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) by near infrared spectroscopy. Aquaculture 315:290–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Skoblina MN, Goncharov BF (2012) Stimulation of in vitro oocyte ovulation by progesterone and homologous pituitary gonadotropic hormones in sturgeons. Russ J Dev Biol 43: 157–163 (in Russian)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Smol’anov II (1979) Sibirskiy osyotr v basseinakh Konakovskogo zavoda. (Siberian sturgeon in tanks of Konakovo hatchery). In: Osetrovoye khozyaistvo vnutrennikh vodoyomov SSSR. (Sturgeon farming in inland water bodies of the USSR). Abstracts of all-union meeting in Astrakhan’. pp 238–239Google Scholar
  44. Sorokina MN (2004) Effektivnost’ ispol’zovaniya α-tokoferola i askorbinovoy kisloty pri podgotovke samok osetrovykh ryb. (Efficiency of α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid application to prepare sturgeon fish to spawn). Synopsis of PhD thesis in biology. AGTU, Astrakhan, 24ppGoogle Scholar
  45. Sokolov LI, Malyutin VS (1977) Features of the population structure and characteristics of spawners of Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baeri, in the spawning grounds of the Lena River. J Ichthyol 17:210–218Google Scholar
  46. Stech L, Linhart O, Shelton WL et al (1999) Minimally invasive surgical removal of ovulated eggs from paddlefish. Aquac Int 7:129–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Talbott MJ, Van Eenennaam JP, Linares-Casenave J et al (2011) Investigating the use of plasma testosterone and estradiol-17β to detect ovarian follicular atresia in farmed white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus. Aquaculture 315:283–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Van Eenennaam JP, Linares-Cazenave J, Doroshov SI (2012) Tank spawning of first generation domestic green sturgeon. J Appl Ichthyol 28:505–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Vizziano D, Barrios F, Astigarraga I et al (2006) Unusual conditions for Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii Brandt) spawning. J Appl Ichthyol 22(Suppl. 1):325–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Webb MAH, Doroshov SI (2011) Importance of environmental endocrinology in fisheries management and aquaculture of sturgeons. Gen Comp Endocrinol 170:313–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Williot P (1986) L’élevage des esturgeons. In: Barnabé G (coord) Aquaculture, Lavoisier, Tec et Doc Chap 6, pp 713–738Google Scholar
  52. Williot P (1997a) Reproduction de l’esturgeon sibérien (Acipenser baerii Brandt) en élevage: gestion des génitrices, compétence à la maturation in vitro de follicules ovariens et caractéristiques plasmatiques durant l’induction de la ponte. Thèse no 1822, Université Bordeaux I, 227p.Google Scholar
  53. Williot P (1997b) Effects of incubation media on maturation of isolated ovarian follicles of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii Brandt) induced by sturgeon gonadotropic preparation or 17α, 20β, dihydroxyprogesterone. Comp Biochem Physiol 118 C:285–293Google Scholar
  54. Williot P (1998) Influence of yolk-blackish pigmentation of Siberian sturgeon on reproductive performance and larval survival. Aquac Int 6:403–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Williot P (2002) Reproduction des esturgeons. In: Billard R (coord) Esturgeons et caviar. Lavoisier Tech et Doc, pp 63–90Google Scholar
  56. Williot P (2011) Sex determination and staging of gonads. In: Williot P, Rochard E, Desse-Berset N, Kirschbaum F, Gessner J (eds) Biology and Conservation of the European sturgeon Acipenser sturio L. 1758. The reunion of the European and Atlantic sturgeons. Springer, New York, pp 369–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Williot P, Brun R (1982) Résultats sur la reproduction d’Acipenser baeri en 1982. Bulletin Français de Pisciculture (287):19–22Google Scholar
  58. Williot P, Brun R (1998) Ovarian development and cycles in cultured Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baeri. Aquat Living Resour 11(2):111–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Williot P, Rouault T (1982) Compte rendu d’une première reproduction en France de l'esturgeon sibérien Acipenser baeri. Bulletin Français de Pisciculture (286):255–261Google Scholar
  60. Williot P, Sabeau L (1999) Elevage d’esturgeons et production de caviar: exemple de l’esturgeon sibérien (Acipenser baeri) en France. C.R. Acad. Agric. 85(8):71–83Google Scholar
  61. Williot P, Brun R, Rouault T et al (1991) Management of female breeders of the Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baeri Brandt: first results. In: Williot P (ed) ACIPENSER. Cemagref Publ., Antony, pp 365–379Google Scholar
  62. Williot P, Brun R, Pelard M et al (2000a) Unusual induced maturation and spawning in an incidentally caught pair of adults of the critically endangered European sturgeon Acipenser sturio L. J Appl Ichthyol 16(6):279–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Williot P, Kopeika EF, Goncharov B (2000b) Influence of testis state, temperature and delay in semen collection on spermatozoa motility in the culture Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii Brandt). Aquaculture 189:53–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Williot P, Gulyas T, Ceapa C (2002) An analogue of GnRH is effective for the induction of ovulation and spermiation in farmed Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii Brandt. Aquac Res 33:735–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Williot P, Rouault T, Pelard M et al (2009) Artificial reproduction of captive endangered European Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser sturio. Endanger Species Res 6:251–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Williot P, Comte S, Le Menn F (2011) Stress indicators throughout the reproduction of farmed Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii (Brandt) females. Int Aquat Res 3:31–43Google Scholar
  67. Zhong-Ling D, Zhao Yan XY (1991) Analysis on Acipenser sinensis spawning ground and spawning scales below Gezhouba hydro-electric dam by means of examining the digestive contents of benthic fishes. In: Williot P (ed) Acipenser. Cemagref Publ, Antony, pp 243–250Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.AudengeFrance
  2. 2.State Regional Center for Sturgeon Gene Pool Conservation “Kubanbioresursi”KrasnodarRussian Federation
  3. 3.Department of Aquatic Biological Resources and AquacultureKuban State UniversityKrasnodarRussian Federation

Personalised recommendations