Advertisement

Effects of Exposure to Ammonia in Water: Determination of the Sublethal and Lethal Levels in Siberian Sturgeon, Acipenser baerii

  • Guy Nonnotte
  • Dominique Salin
  • Patrick Williot
Chapter

Abstract

The initial aim of this work was to situate the sensitivity of the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii B.) to ammonia compared with other species. Ammonia toxicity in the Siberian sturgeon was analysed, and the 24 h LC50 was performed for different weight groups. This sensitivity is currently determined by normalized tests of short duration, even if their practical application is difficult. During exposure to high levels of ammonia, we also observed alterations of the branchial tissue and modifications in haematological characteristics, in the behaviour of the fishes and tetany. Thus, the interpretation of these observations remains difficult, and we propose an experimental protocol under controlled conditions of pH, oxygen partial pressure PO2, carbon dioxide partial pressure PCO2, temperature and ammonia concentrations in water for 72 h duration to perform additional experiments in physiology and biochemistry.

Keywords

Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii B. Ammonia Toxicity LC50 Experimental protocol 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Dr. Karine Pichavant-Rafini (ORPHY laboratory, EA4324) and Michel Rafini (Professor at the Language Dpt) of the Brest University, for their kindness and constant availability, their help and their scientific advices. Moreover, we are extremely indebted and grateful to them for the English corrections.

Notes of the Authors

The experiments were performed since 1990 to 1994. They have been investigated in the “Laboratoire de Neurobiologie et Physiologie comparées, CNRS URA 1126 and the University of Bordeaux I, F-33120 Arcachon,” in collaboration with the IRSTEA (formerly CEMAGREF), F-33611 Cestas-Gazinet.

The present chapter was a redrawn version of a part of a PHD: Salin D (1992) La toxicité de l’ammoniaque chez l’esturgeon sibérien, Acipenser baerii: effets morphologiques, physiologiques, métaboliques d’une exposition à des doses sublétales et létales. Thèse N° 749, Université Bordeaux I pp134, financial grant of the IRSTEA (formerly CEMAGREF) and CNRS. Director of thesis: Truchot Jean-Paul; supervisors: Nonnotte Guy and Williot Patrick.

References

  1. AFNOR NF T 90-015 (1975) Essais des eaux: dosage de l'azote ammoniacal 2: méthode spectrophotométrique au bleu d'indophénol, p 6Google Scholar
  2. AFNOR NF T 90-305 (1985) Détermination de la toxicité aigüe d’une sustance vis à vis de la truite Arc-en-ciel, p 4Google Scholar
  3. Ait-Fdil M (1986) Mise en évidence et propriétés des ATPases membranaires dans la branchie, les érythrocytes et le rein d’un Chondrostéen, l’esturgeon sibérien, A. baerii. Thèse N° 2157, Université Bordeaux I, p 60Google Scholar
  4. Alabaster JS, Lloyd R (1980) Water quality criteria for freshwater fish: ammonia, vol 4. Butterworths, FAO London, pp 85–102Google Scholar
  5. Arthur JW, West CW, Allen KN, Hedtke SF (1987) Seasonal toxicity of ammonia to five fish and nine invertebrate species. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 38:324–331CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Baird R, Bottomley J, Taitz H (1979) Ammonia toxicity and pH control in fish toxicity bioassays of treated wastewater. Water Res 13:181–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ball IR (1967) The relative susceptibility of some species of fresh water fish to poisons: I Ammonia. Water Res 1:767–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bennouna M (1986) Equilibre hydrominéral du milieu intérieur et des érythrocytes chez un Chondrostéen, l’esturgeon sibérien, A. baerii au cours de variations expérimentales de salinité et de température de l’environnement. Thèse N° 2148, Université Bordeaux I, p 93Google Scholar
  9. Buckley JA (1978) Acute toxicity of unionized ammonia to fingerling coho salmon. Prog Fish-Cult 40(1):30–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Buckley JA, Whitmore CM, Liming BD (1979) Effects of prolonged exposure to ammonia on the blood and the liver glycogen of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Comp Biochem Physiol 63C:297–303Google Scholar
  11. Burkhalter DE, Kaya CM (1977) Effects of prolonged exposure to ammonia on fertilized eggs and sac fry of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerï). Trans Am Fish Soc 106(5):470–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cameron JN, Heisler N (1983) Studies of ammonia in the rainbow trout: physicochemical parameters, acid-base behaviour and respiratory clearance. J Exp Biol 105:107–125Google Scholar
  13. Colt J, Tchobanoglous G (1976) Evaluation of the short-term toxicity of nitrogenous compounds to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Aquaculture 8:209–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Colt J, Tchobanoglous G (1978) Chronic exposure of channel catfish to ammonia: effects on growth and survival. Aquaculture 15:353–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dabrowska H, Sikora H (1986) Acute toxicity of ammonia to common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Pol Arch Hydrobiol 33(1):121–128Google Scholar
  16. Dabrowska H, Wlashow T (1986) Sublethal effect of ammonia on certain biochemical and haematological indicators in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Comp Biochem Physiol 83C(1):179–184Google Scholar
  17. Daniels HV, Boyd CE, Minton RV (1987) Acute toxicity of ammonia and nitrite to spotted sea-trout. Prog Fish-Cult 49:260–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dejours P, Armand J, Gendner JP (1978) Importance de la régulation de l’équilibre acide-base de l’eau ambiante pour l’étude des échanges respiratoires et ioniques des animaux aquatiques. C R Acad Sc Paris 287:1397–1399Google Scholar
  19. Emerson KR, Russo RC, Lund RE, Thurston RV (1975) Aqueous ammonia equilibrium calculations: effect of pH and temperature. J Fish Res Board Can 32:2379–2383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Faure A (1976) Bases de la gestion de l'eau en salmoniculture intensive. La Pisciculture Française 46:11–54Google Scholar
  21. Hamilton MA, Russo RC, Thurston RV (1977) Trimmed spearman-Karber method for estimating median lethal concentrations in toxicity bioassays. Environ Sci Technol 11(7):714–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hasan MR, Macintosh DJ (1986) Acute toxicity of ammonia to common carp fry. Aquaculture 54:97–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Haywood GP (1983) Ammonia toxicity in teleost fishes: a review. Can Tech Rep Fish Aquat Sci 1177:35Google Scholar
  24. Herbert DWM, Shurben DS (1963) A preliminary study of the effect of physical activity on the resistance of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii Richardson) to two poisons. Annals of Applied Biology 52(2):321–326Google Scholar
  25. Hillaby BA, Randall DJ (1979) Acute ammonia toxicity and ammonia excretion in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). J Fish Res Board Can 36:621–629Google Scholar
  26. Holt GJ, Arnold CR (1983) Effects of ammonia and nitrite on growth and survival of red drum eggs and larvae. Trans Am Fish Soc 112:314–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hun JB, Christenson LM (1977) Chemical composition of blood and bile of the shovelnose sturgeon. Prog Fish Cult 39(2):59–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lavrova EA, Natochin YV, Shakhamatova EL (1984) Electrolytes in the tissues of sturgeon and bony fishes in fresh and salt water. J Ichthyol 24(5):156–160Google Scholar
  29. Luquet P (1972) Données sur l'alimentation des salmonidés II: Besoins alimentaires. Aliment Vie 60(5):339–347Google Scholar
  30. Magnin E (1962) Recherches sur la systématique et la biologie des Acipenséridés. Ann Stn Centr Hydrobiol Appl 9:7–242Google Scholar
  31. Meade JW (1985) Allowable ammonia for fish culture. Prog Fish-Cult 47(3):135–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Natochin Y, Luk’yanenko VI, Lavrova YA, Metallov GF (1975) Cation contents of the blood serum during the marine and river periods in the life sturgeons. J Ichthyol 15(5):799–804Google Scholar
  33. Potts WTW, Rudy PP (1972) Aspects of osmotic and ionic regulation in the sturgeon. J Exp Biol 56:703–715Google Scholar
  34. Poxton MG, Allouse SB (1982) Water quality criteria for marine fisheries. Aquacult Engineering 1:153–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Reish DL and Oshida PS (1987) Manual of methods in aquatic environment research, part 10: short term static bioassays. FAO Fish Tech Pap no 247, Rome, p 62Google Scholar
  36. Rice SD, Bailley JE (1980) Survival, size and emergence of pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, alevins after short- and long-term exposures to ammonia. Fishery Bull 78(3):641–648Google Scholar
  37. Rice SD, Stokes RM (1975) Acute toxicity of ammonia to several developmental stages of rainbow trout, Salmo Gairdneri. Fishery Bull 73:207–211Google Scholar
  38. Ruffier P, Boyle W, Kleinschmidt J (1981) Short-terme acute bioassays to evaluate ammonia toxicity and effluent standards. J WPGF 53:367–377Google Scholar
  39. Salin D, Williot P (1991) Acute toxicity of ammonia to Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii. In: Williot P (ed) Acipenser. CEMAGREF-DICOVA Publications, Antony, France, pp 153–167Google Scholar
  40. Salin D (1992) La toxicité de l’ammoniaque chez l’esturgeon sibérien, Acipenser baerii: effets morphologiques, physiologiques, métaboliques d’une exposition à des doses sublétales et létales. Thèse N° 749, Université de Bordeaux I pp. 134Google Scholar
  41. Schales O, Schales SS (1941) A simple and accurate method for the determination of chloride in biological fluids. J Biol Chem 140:879–884Google Scholar
  42. Scherrer B (1984) Biostatistique. In: Morin G (ed). Quebec, Canada, p 850Google Scholar
  43. Sheehan RJ, Lewis WM (1986) Influence of pH and ammonia salts on ammonia toxicity and water balance in young channel catfish. Trans Am Fish Soc 115:891–899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Smart GR (1978) Investigations of the toxic mechanisms of ammonia to fish gas exchange in rainbow trout exposed to acutely lethal concentrations. J Fish Biol 12:93–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Smith HW (1929) The excretion of ammonia and urea by the gills of fish. J Biol Chem 81:727–742Google Scholar
  46. Soivio A, Oikari A (1976) Haematological effects of stress on a teleost Esox lucius L. J Fish Biol 8:397–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Thurston RV, Russo RC (1983) Acute toxicity of ammonia to rainbow trout. Trans Am Fish Soc 112:696–704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Thurston RV, Russo RC, Phillips GR (1983) Acute toxicity of ammonia to fathead minnows (Pimephates prometas). Trans Am Fish Soc 112:705–711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Thurston RV, Russo RC, Vinogradov GA (1981) Ammonia toxicity to fishes: effect of pH on the toxicity of the unionized ammonia species. Environ Sci & Technol 15:837–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Thurston RV, Russo RC, Smith CE (1978) Acute toxicity of ammonia and nitrite to cutthroat trout fry. Trans Am Fish Soc 107(2):361–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tomasso JR, Goudie CA, Simco BA, Davis KB (1980) Effects of pH and calcium on ammonia toxicity in channel catfish. Trans Am Fish Soc 109:229–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Vellas F (1979) L'excrétion azotée: métabolisme des composés azotés. In: Nutrition des poissons. Actes du colloque du CNERMA, Paris, CNRS Ed: 149-161Google Scholar
  53. Wickins JF (1981) Water quality requirement for intensive aquaculture: a review Proc World Symp on Aquaculture. In: Heated effluents and recirculation systems, Stavanger 28–30 May 1980, I: 18-3Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guy Nonnotte
    • 1
  • Dominique Salin
    • 2
  • Patrick Williot
    • 3
  1. 1.La Teste de BuchFrance
  2. 2.Saint Médard en JallesFrance
  3. 3.AudengeFrance

Personalised recommendations