Advertisement

Gonadal Steroids: Synthesis, Plasmatic Levels and Biological Activities in Sturgeons

  • Denise Vizziano-Cantonnet
Chapter

Abstract

The information on sex steroids in sturgeons is fragmented and comes from different species. In females, circulating oestradiol-17β increases during vitellogenesis and resulted a good marker of puberty in some species. However, researchers failed to induce oocyte growth and vitellogenesis using treatments with oestradiol-17β. Androgens also increase during this period but remained elevated during ovulation and post-ovulation suggesting a physiological role at peri-ovulatory period. 17,20,21P seems to be a good candidate as mediator of gonadotropin to induce follicle maturation since it is produced in vitro by sturgeons ovaries, it has a high potency to induce follicle maturation in vitro, and its plasmatic concentration increases after hormonal induction of ovulation; however, other C21 steroids as 17,21-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3,20-dione (17,21P), 17,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20βP) and 17,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20βP) need to be further investigated as possible maturation-inducing steroids. Studies on potency of C21 and C19 steroids to induce resumption of meiosis revealed that C21 steroids are more potent than testosterone and that 11-oxygenated androgens do not induce maturation. Aromatase expression in immature males and plasmatic changes of testosterone and oestradiol-17β suggest their participation in early testicular development. 11-Ketotestosterone increased significantly during spermatogenesis both in vitro and in vivo as it has been shown in teleosts. The C21 steroid (17,20βP and 17,20,21P) increases in blood plasma after hormonal induction of spermiation suggesting their participation in the control of sperm maturation and release. Biological activity of steroids and in vitro steroid production by gonads are almost none studied in sturgeons.

Keywords

Sturgeons Sex steroids Steroidogenesis Plasma concentrations Gonads Acipenser baerii 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Special thanks are due to Dr. Patrick Williot to receive the author in the experimental installations of the CEMAGREF (Bordeaux, France) to develop the in vitro work made using ovarian samples of adult female Siberian sturgeons. Andrés Alberro, Valeria Camarero and Florencia Barrios helped in technical assistance. Many thanks are due to Dr. Alexis Fostier (INRA, Rennes, France) for the generous donation of serum anti-steroids.

References

  1. Akhavan SR, Falahatkar B, Gilani MHT, Lokman PM (2015) Effects of estradiol-17β implantation on ovarian growth, sex steroid levels and vitellogenin proxies in previtellogenic sturgeon Huso huso. Anim Reprod Sci 157:1–10Google Scholar
  2. Alberro A (2009) Síntesis de esteroides durante la maduración ovocitaria en el esturión siberiano Acipenser baerii. Trabajo especial II de la Licenciatura en Bioquímica. Universidad de la República Oriental del Uruguay, MontevideoGoogle Scholar
  3. Alberro A, Williot P, Vizziano D (2008) Steroid synthesis during oocyte maturation in the Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii. Cybium 32(2):255–255Google Scholar
  4. Amiri B, Maebayashi M, Adachi S, Moberg G, Doroshov S, Yamauchi K (1999) In vitro steroidogenesis by testicular fragments and ovarian follicles in a hybrid sturgeon, Bester. Fish Physiol Biochem 21(1):1–14Google Scholar
  5. Amiri B, Maebayashi M, Adachi S, Yamauchi K (1996a) Testicular development and serum sex steroid profiles during the annual sexual cycle of the male sturgeon hybrid the bester. J Fish Biol 48(6):1039–1050Google Scholar
  6. Amiri B, Maebayashi M, Hara A, Adachi S, Yamauchi K (1996b) Ovarian development and serum sex steroid and vitellogenin profiles in the female cultured sturgeon hybrid, the bester. J Fish Biol 48(6):1164–1178Google Scholar
  7. Aramli M, Kalbassi M, Nazari R (2014) Sex steroid levels of Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus, Borodin, 1897, males in negative and positive responding to LH-RH-analogue. J Appl Ichthyol 30(1):18–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Artyukhin EN, Semenkova T, Bayunova L, Lunev G, Barannikova I (2006) Histological assessment of the testes coupled with determinations of sex steroid levels in Acipenser gueldenstaedtii males responding negatively to pituitary treatment. J Appl Ichthyol 22:361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barannikova I, Bayunova L, Semenkova T (2006) Serum sex steroids and their specific cytosol binding in the pituitary and gonads of Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii Brandt) during final maturation. J Appl Ichthyol 22:331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barannikova I, Dyubin V, Bayunova L, Semenkova T (2002) Steroids in the control of reproductive function in fish. Neurosci Behav Physiol 32(2):141–148CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Baroiller JF, Guiguen Y, Fostier A (1999) Endocrine and environmental aspects of sex differentiation in fish. CMLS 55(6–7):910–931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Baynes S, Scott A (1985) Seasonal variations in parameters of milt production and in plasma concentration of sex steroids of male rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Gen Comp Endocrinol 57(1):150–160CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bayunova L (2016) The effect of hormonal stimulation on steroid levels in tissue incubates of the sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.) J Evol Biochem Physiol 52(1):17–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bayunova L, Barannikova I, Dyubin V, Gruslova A, Semenkova T, Trenkler I (2003) Sex steroids concentrations in Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii Br.) serum and coelomic fluid at final oocyte maturation. Fish Physiol Biochem 28(1–4):325–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bayunova L, Canario AV, Semenkova T, Couto E, Gerasimov A, Barannikova I (2008) Free androgens and progestins and their conjugated forms in serum and urine of stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus Pallas) males. Cybium 32(2):273–274Google Scholar
  16. Bayunova L, Canario AV, Semenkova T, Dyubin V, Sverdlova O, Trenkler I, Barannikova I (2006) Sex steroids and cortisol levels in the blood of stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus Pallas) during final maturation induced by LH-RH-analogue. J Appl Ichthyol 22(s1):334–339Google Scholar
  17. Bayunova L, Semenkova T, Canario AV, Gerasimov A, Barannikova I (2011) Free and conjugated androgen and progestin levels in the serum of stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus Pallas) males treated with female coelomic fluid. J Appl Ichthyol 27(2):655–659Google Scholar
  18. Billard R, Breton B, Fostier A, Jalabert B, Weil C (1978) Endocrine control of the teleost reproductive cycle and its relation to external factors: salmonid and cyprinid models. In: Gaillard PJ, Boer HH (eds) Comparative endocrinology. Elsevcier/North Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, pp 37–48Google Scholar
  19. Billard R, Fostier A, Weil C, Breton B (1982) Endocrine control of spermatogenesis in teleost fish. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 39(1):65–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Blasco M, Somoza GM, Vizziano-Cantonnet D (2013) Presence of 11-ketotestosterone in pre-differentiated male gonads of Odontesthes bonariensis. Fish Physiol Biochem 39(1):71–74CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Borg B (1994) Androgens in teleost fishes. Comp Biochem Physiol Part C: Pharmacology, Toxicology and Endocrinology 109(3):219–245Google Scholar
  22. Bukovskaya O, Lambert J, Kime D (1997) In vitro steroidogenesis by gonads of the Russian sturgeon, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii Brandt. Fish Physiol Biochem 16(4):345–353Google Scholar
  23. Ceapa C, Williot P, Le Menn F, Davail-Cuisset B (2002) Plasma sex steroids and vitellogenin levels in stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus Pallas) during spawning migration in the Danube River. J Appl Ichthyol 18(4–6):391–396Google Scholar
  24. Cuisset B, Fostier A, Williot P, Bennetau-Pelissero C, Le Menn F (1995) Occurrence and in vitro biosynthesis of 11-ketotestosterone in Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii Brandt maturing females. Fish Physiol Biochem 14(4):313–322Google Scholar
  25. Cuisset B, Pradelles P, Kime DE, Kühn ER, Babin P, Davail S, Le Menn F (1994) Enzyme immunoassay for 11-ketotestosterone using acetylcholinesterase as label: application to the measurement of 11-ketotestosterone in plasma of Siberian sturgeon. Comp Biochem Physiol 108C(2):229–241Google Scholar
  26. Davail-Cuisset B, Lacomme S, Viaene E, Williot P, Lepage M, Gonthier P, Davail S, Rouault T (2008) Hormonal profile in adult European sturgeon, Acipenser sturio, adapted to hatchery conditions in France. Cybium 32:169–170Google Scholar
  27. Davail-Cuisset B, Rouault T, Williot P (2011) Estradiol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, 17, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one and vitellogenin plasma levels in females of captive European sturgeon, Acipenser sturio. J Appl Ichthyol 27(2):666–672Google Scholar
  28. Diotel N, Do Rego JL, Anglade I, Vaillant C, Pellegrini E, Gueguen MM, Mironov S, Vaudry H, Kah O (2011) Activity and expression of steroidogenic enzymes in the brain of adult zebrafish. Eur J Neurosci 34(1):45–56CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Fostier A, Breton B, Jalabert B, Marcuzzi O (1981) Evolution of plasma levels of glycoproteic gonadotropins and of 17 alpha hydroxy-20 beta dihydroprogesterone during maturation and ovulation of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. CR Acad Sci Serie III, Sciences de la vie 293(15):817–820Google Scholar
  30. Fostier A, Jalabert B, Billard R, Breton B, Zohar Y (1983) The gonadal steroids. In: Hoar WS, Randall DJ (eds) Fish physiology, vol 9. Academic Press, New York, pp 277–372Google Scholar
  31. Fostier A, Jalabert B, Terqui M (1973) Predominant action of a hydroxylated derivative of progesterone on the in vitro maturation of ovocytes of the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). CR Acad Sci, Serie D: Sciences naturelles 277(4):421–424Google Scholar
  32. García-Alonso J, Nappa A, Somoza G, Rey A, Vizziano D (2003) In vitro steroid metabolism during final oocyte maturation in white croaker Micropogonias furnieri (Sciaenidae). Fish Physiol Biochem 28(1–4):337–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. García-Alonso J, Nappa A, Somoza G, Rey A, Vizziano D (2004) Steroid metabolism in vitro during final oocyte maturation in white croaker Micropogonias furnieri (Pisces: Scianidae). Braz J Biol 64(2):211–220CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Gower D, Fotherby K (1975) Biosynthesis of the androgens and oestrogens. In: HLJ M (ed) Biochemistry of steroid hormones. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 77–104Google Scholar
  35. Guiguen Y, Fostier A, Piferrer F, Chang CF (2010) Ovarian aromatase and estrogens: a pivotal role for gonadal sex differentiation and sex change in fish. Gen Comp Endocrinol 165(3):352–366CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Hamlin HJ, Milnes MR, Beaulaton CM, Albergotti LC, Guillette LJ (2011) Gonadal stage and sex steroid correlations in Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii, habituated to a semitropical environment. J World Aquacul Soc 42(3):313–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hattori RS, Fernandino JI, Kishii A, Kimura H, Kinno T, Oura M, Somoza GM, Yokota M, Strussmann CA, Watanabe S (2009) Cortisol-induced masculinization: does thermal stress affect gonadal fate in pejerrey, a teleost fish with temperature-dependent sex determination? PLoS One 4(8):e6548CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Hurvitz A, Jackson K, Yom-Din S, Degani G, Levavi-Sivan B (2008) Sexual development in Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) grown in aquaculture. Cybium 32:283–285Google Scholar
  39. Ijiri S, Kaneko H, Kobayashi T, Wang DS, Sakai F, Paul-Prasanth B, Nakamura M, Nagahama Y (2008) Sexual dimorphic expression of genes in gonads during early differentiation of a teleost fish, the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Biol Reprod 78(2):333–341CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Jalabert B, Fostier A, Breton B, Weil C (1991) Chapter 2: Oocyte maturation in vertebrates. In: PKT P, Schreibman MP (eds) Vertebrate endocrinology: fundamentals and biomedical implications, vol 4A. Academic Press, New York, pp 23–90Google Scholar
  41. Kagawa H, Young G, Nagahama Y (1983) Relationship between seasonal plasma estradiol-17 beta and testosterone levels and in vitro production by ovarian follicles of amago salmon (Oncorhynchus rhodurus). Biol Reprod 29(2):301–309CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Khara H, Falahatkar B, Meknatkhah B, Ahmadnezhad M, Efatpanah I, Poursaeid S, Rahbar M (2013) Effect of dietary estradiol 17 on growth, hematology and biochemistry of stellate sturgeon Acipenser stellatus. WORLD 5(2):113–120Google Scholar
  43. Kime D (1995) Steroid Nomenclature. Gen Comp Endocrinol 98(2):119–120Google Scholar
  44. Lubzens E, Young G, Bobe J, Cerdà J (2010) Oogenesis in teleosts: how fish eggs are formed. Gen Comp Endocrinol 165(3):367–389CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Miura T, Higuchi M, Ozaki Y, Ohta T, Miura C (2006) Progestin is an essential factor for the initiation of the meiosis in spermatogenetic cells of the eel. PNAS 103(19):7333–7338CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Miura T, Miura CI (2003) Molecular control mechanisms of fish spermatogenesis. Fish Physiol Biochem 28(1–4):181–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Miura T, Miura C, Ohta T, Nader MR, Todo T, Yamauchi K (1999) Estradiol-17β stimulates the renewal of spermatogonial stem cells in males. Bioch Biophys Res Comm 264(1):230–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Miura T, Yamauchi K, Takahashi H, Nagahama Y (1992) The role of hormones in the acquisition of sperm motility in salmonid fish. J Exp Zool 261(3):359–363CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Nagahama Y (1987) 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one: a teleost maturation-inducing hormone. Dev Growth Diff 29(1):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Nagahama Y (1994) Endocrine regulation of gametogenesis in fish. Int J Dev Biol 38:217–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Nagahama Y, Hirose K, Young G, Adachi S, Suzuki K, Tamaoki B-i (1983) Relative in vitro effectiveness of 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one and other pregnene derivatives on germinal vesicle breakdown in oocytes of ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis), amago salmon (Oncorhynchus rhodurus), rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). Gen Comp Endocrinol 51(1):15–23CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Nagahama Y, Yoshikuni M, Yamashita M, Tanaka M (1994) Regulation of oocyte maturation in fish. Fish Physiol 13:393–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Nakamura M, Kobayashi T, Chang XT, Nagahama Y (1998) Gonadal sex differentiation in teleost fish. J Exp Zool 281(5):362–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pelissero C, Le Menn F (1988) Détermination des taux plasmatiques de stéroides sexuels et de la vitellogénine chez l'esturgeon sibérien Acipenser baeri élevé en pisciculture. CR Acad Sci Paris 3007(Série III):749–754Google Scholar
  55. Pelissero C, Le Menn F (1991) Evolution of sex steroid levels in males and first time maturing females of the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) reared in a French fish farm. In: Williot P (ed) Acipenser. Cemagref Publ, Antony, pp 87–97Google Scholar
  56. Piferrer F, Guiguen Y (2008) Fish gonadogenesis. Part II: molecular biology and genomics of sex differentiation. Rev Fish Sci 16(S1):35–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Schulz R, Andriske M, Lembke P, Blüm V (1992) Effect of salmon gonadotropic hormone on sex steroids in male rainbow trout: plasma levels and testicular secretion in vitro. J Comp Physiol B 162(3):224–230CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Schulz RW, de Franca LR, Lareyre JJ, Le Gac F, Chiarini-Garcia H, Nobrega RH, Miura T (2010) Spermatogenesis in fish. Gen Comp Endocrinol 165(3):390–411CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Schulz RW, Miura T (2002) Spermatogenesis and its endocrine regulation. Fish Physiol Biochem 26(1):43–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Scott A, Canario A (1987) Status of oocyte maturation-inducing steroids in teleosts. In: Idler DR, Crim LW, Walsh JM (eds) Proceedings of the third international symposium on reproductive physiology of fish. Memorial University of Newfoundland St. John's, Newfoundland, pp 224–234Google Scholar
  61. Scott A, Sumpter J (1983) The control of trout reproduction: basic and applied research on hormones. In: Rankin JC, Pitcher TJ, Duggan RT (eds) Control processes in fish physiology. Croom Helm, London, pp 200–220Google Scholar
  62. Scott A, Sumpter J, Stacey N (2010) The role of the maturation-inducing steroid, 17, 20β-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one, in male fishes: a review. J Fish Biol 76(1):183–224CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Semenkova T, Barannikova I, Kime D, McAllister B, Bayunova L, Dyubin V, Kolmakov N (2002) Sex steroid profiles in female and male stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus Pallas) during final maturation induced by hormonal treatment. J Appl Ichthyol 18(4–6):375–381Google Scholar
  64. Semenkova TB, Canário AV, Bayunova LV, Couto E, Kolmakov NN, Barannikova IA (2006) Sex steroids and oocyte maturation in the sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.) J Appl Ichthyol 22(s1):340–345Google Scholar
  65. Taranger GL, Carrillo M, Schulz R, Fontaine P, Zanuy S, Felip A, Weltzien FA, Dufour S, Karlsen O, Norberg B, Andersson HT (2010) Control of puberty in farmed fish. Gen Comp Endocrinol 165:483–515CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Thomas P (2012) Rapid steroid hormone actions initiated at the cell surface and the receptors that mediate them with an emphasis on recent progress in fish models. Gen Comp Endocrinol 175(3):367–383CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Thomas P, Breckenridge-Miller D, Detweiler C (1997) Binding characteristics and regulation of the 17, 20β, 21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (20β-S) receptor on testicular and sperm plasma membranes of spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus). Fish Physiol Biochem 17(1–6):109–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Trant JM, Thomas P, Shackleton CH (1986) Identification of 17α, 20β, 21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one as the major ovarian steroid produced by the teleost Micropogonias undulatus during final oocyte maturation. Steroids 47(2):89–99CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Ueda H, Hiroi O, Hara A, Yamauchi K, Nagahama Y (1984) Changes in serum concentrations of steroid hormones, thyroxine, and vitellogenin during spawning migration of the chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta. Gen Comp Endocrinol 53(2):203–211CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Ueda H, Kambegawa A, Nagahama Y (1985) Involvement of gonadotrophin and steroid hormones in spermiation in the amago salmon, Oncorhynchus rhodurus, and goldfish, Carassius auratus. Gen Comp Endocrinol 59(1):24–30CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Vizziano D, Barrios F, Astigarraga I, Breton B, Williot P (2006) Unusual conditions for Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii Brandt) spawning. J Appl Ichthyol 22(s1):325–330Google Scholar
  72. Vizziano D, Fostier A, Le Gac F, Loir M (1996) 20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in nonflagellated germ cells of rainbow trout testis. Biol Reprod 54(1):1–7Google Scholar
  73. Vizziano D, Randuineau G, Baron D, Cauty C, Guiguen Y (2007) Characterization of early molecular sex differentiation in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Dev Dyn 236(8):2198–2206CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Vizziano-Cantonnet D, Di Landro S, Lasalle A, Martínez A, Mazzoni TS, Quagio-Grassiotto I (2016) Identification of the molecular sex-differentiation period in the siberian sturgeon. Mol Reprod Dev 83(1):19–36CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Vizziano-Cantonnet D, Mateo M, Alberro A, Barrios F, Fostier A (2015) 17, 20β-P and cortisol are the main in vitro metabolites of 17-hydroxy-progesterone produced by spermiating testes of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823) (Perciformes: Sciaenidae). Neotrop Ichthyol 13(3):613–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Vlassenko AD, Pavlov AV, Sokolov LI, Vasil’ev VP (1989) Acipenser gueldenstaedtii Brandt, 1833. In: Holcik L (ed) The freshwater fishes of Europe. General introduction to fishes acipenseriformes. AULA-Verlag, Wiesbaden, pp 294–344Google Scholar
  77. Webb MA, Feist GW, Trant JM, Van Eenennaam JP, Fitzpatrick MS, Schreck CB, Doroshov SI (2002) Ovarian steroidogenesis in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) during oocyte maturation and induced ovulation. Gen Comp Endocrinol 129(1):27–38CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Webb M, Van Eenennaam J, Doroshov S (2000) Effects of steroid hormones on in vitro oocyte maturation in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). Fish Physiol Biochem 23(4):317–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Yamamoto TO (1969) Sex differentiation. In: Hoar WS, Randall DJ (eds) Fish physiology, vol 3. Academic Press, New York, pp 117–175Google Scholar
  80. Yaron Z (1995) Endocrine control of gametogenesis and spawning induction in the carp. Aquaculture 129(1):49–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Young G, Crim LW, Kagawa H, Kambegawa A, Nagahama Y (1983a) Plasma 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one levels during sexual maturation of amago salmon (Oncorhynchus rhodurus): correlation with plasma gonadotropin and in vitro production by ovarian follicles. Gen Comp Endocrinol 51(1):96–105CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Young G, Kagawa H, Nagahama Y (1982) Oocyte maturation in the amago salmon (Oncorhynchus rhodurus): In vitro effects of salmon gonadotropin, steroids, and cyanoketone (an inhibitor of 3β-hydroxy-Δ5-steroid dehydrogenase). J Exp Zool 224(2):265–275CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Young G, Ueda H, Nagahama Y (1983b) Estradiol-17β and 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one production by isolated ovarian follicles of amago salmon (Oncorhynchus rhodurus) in response to mammalian pituitary and placental hormones and salmon gonadotropin. Gen Comp Endocrinol 52(2):329–335CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Yueh W, Chang C (1997) 17α, 20β, 21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one and 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one stimulated spermiation in protandrous black porgy, Acanthopagrus schlegelii. Fish Physiol Biochem 17(1–6):187–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Facultad de CienciasLaboratorio de Fisiología de la Reproducción y Ecología de PecesMontevideoUruguay

Personalised recommendations