Two Hop Adaptive Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks
- 1.3k Downloads
Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) facilitate a wide range of aquatic applications in many domains. However, harsh underwater environment poses challenges like low bandwidth, long propagation delay, high bit error rate, etc. Node mobility and uneven distribution of sensor nodes create void holes in UWSNs. Avoiding void hole creation benefits in many ways: it is mandatory to avoid void hole creation for better coverage over an area, less energy consumption in the network and high throughput. In such conditions, minimization of void hole probability in locally sparse regions is focused in this paper. Two hop adaptive vector based forwarding (2hop-AHH-VBF) routing protocol selects forwarder based on two hop potential neighbor number information. Meeting the void holes during forwarding path is significantly reduced in this way. Moreover, successful transmissions guarantee reliable packet delivery and reduced energy tax. Simulation results verify that proposed scheme outperforms in packet delivery ratio and energy tax while compared with AHH-VBF.
- 1.Azam, I., Majid, A., Ahmad, I., Shakeel, U., Maqsood, H., Khan, Z.A., Qasim, U., Javaid, N.: SEEC: sparsity-aware energy efficient clustering protocol for underwater wireless sensor networks. In: 2016 IEEE 30th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA), pp. 352–361. IEEE (2016)Google Scholar
- 3.Yan, H., Shi, Z.J., Cui, J.-H.: DBR: depth-based routing for underwater sensor networks. In: International Conference on Research in Networking, pp. 72–86. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)Google Scholar
- 5.Majid, A., Azam, I., Khan, T., Khan, Z.A., Qasim, U., Javaid, N.: A reliable and interference-aware routing protocol for underwater wireless sensor networks. In: 2016 10th International Conference on Complex, Intelligent, and Software Intensive Systems (CISIS), pp. 246–255. IEEE (2016)Google Scholar
- 6.Xie, P., Cui, J.-H., Lao, L.: VBF: vector-based forwarding protocol for underwater sensor networks. In: International Conference on Research in Networking, pp. 1216–1221. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)Google Scholar