Advertisement

The Chalice and the Rainbow: Conflicts Between Women’s Spirituality and Transgender Rights in US Wicca in the 2010s

  • Michelle Mueller
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in New Religions and Alternative Spiritualities book series (PSNRAS)

Abstract

US Wicca has been the hybrid product of British Traditional Witchcraft and 1970s-era American feminism. The twenty-first-century US Pagan movement has seen changing definitions of gender and the rise of transgender and gender-fluid identity in the public sphere. Philosophies at the heart of the women’s spirituality movement that helped form Wicca and other US contemporary Pagan traditions are now incompatible with many beliefs and needs of transgender contemporary Pagans and their allies. As its members seek to affirm transgender identity, the current Pagan movement is lacking in its ability to adequately analyze the role of sex differences in global gender inequality.

References

  1. Adler, Margot. Drawing Down the Moon: Witches, Druids, Goddess-Worshippers, and Other Pagans in America Today. Revised and expanded edition. New York: Penguin Books, 1986.Google Scholar
  2. Barrett, Ruth. Women’s Rites, Women’s Mysteries: Intuitive Ritual Creation. 2nd edition. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 2007.Google Scholar
  3. Beauvoir, Simone De. The Second Sex. Vintage Feminism Short Edition. New York: Vintage Classics, 2015.Google Scholar
  4. Budapest, Zsuzsanna. The Holy Book of Women’s Mysteries: Feminist Witchcraft, Goddess Rituals, Spellcasting and Other Womanly Arts… New edition. Berkeley: Wingbow Press, 1989.Google Scholar
  5. Butler, Judith. Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of “Sex.” New York: Routledge, 1993.Google Scholar
  6. ———. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. Thinking Gender. New York: Routledge, 1990.Google Scholar
  7. Christ, Carol P. “Why Women Need the Goddess.” Heresies: The Great Goddess Issue, 1978, 8–13.Google Scholar
  8. Coleman, Kristy S. Re-Riting Woman: Dianic Wicca and the Feminine Divine. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press, 2010.Google Scholar
  9. Curott, Phyllis. Book of Shadows: A Modern Woman’s Journey into the Wisdom of Witchcraft and the Magic of the Goddess. New York: Broadway Books, 1998.Google Scholar
  10. Davis, Philip G. Goddess Unmasked: The Rise of Neopagan Feminist Spirituality. First edition. Dallas: Spence Publishing Company, 1999.Google Scholar
  11. Eisler, Riane. The Chalice and the Blade: Our History, Our Future. Updated edition. San Francisco: HarperOne, 2011.Google Scholar
  12. Eller, Cynthia. Living In The Lap of Goddess: The Feminist Spirituality Movement in America. Boston: Beacon Press, 1995.Google Scholar
  13. Elliot, Patricia. Debates in Transgender, Queer, and Feminist Theory: Contested Sites. Burlington: Ashgate, 2010.Google Scholar
  14. Engels, Friedrich. The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State. Chicago: C. H. Kerr, 1902.Google Scholar
  15. Faludi, Susan. Backlash: The Undeclared War Against American Women. New York: Crown Publishing Group, 2009.Google Scholar
  16. Farrar, Janet, and Stewart Farrarr. The Witches’ God: Lord of the Dance. Blaine, WA: Pheonix, 1989.Google Scholar
  17. ———. The Witches’ Goddess: The Feminine Principle. Blaine, WA: Phoenix, 1987.Google Scholar
  18. Gardner, Gerald B. Witchcraft Today. New edition. London: I-H-O Books, 1999.Google Scholar
  19. Grahn, Judy. Blood, Bread, and Roses: How Menstruation Created the World. Boston: Beacon Press, 1994.Google Scholar
  20. Griffin, Wendy. “Herlands: Finding Goddess on Lesbian Land.” Chicago, 2012.Google Scholar
  21. ———. “The Embodied Goddess: Feminist Witchcraft and Female Divinity.” Sociology of Religion 56 (1995).Google Scholar
  22. Heselton, Philip. Wiccan Roots: Gerald Gardner and the Modern Witchcraft Revival. Milverton: Capall Bann, 2001.Google Scholar
  23. Hochschild, Arlie, and Anne Machung. The Second Shift: Working Families and the Revolution at Home. Revised edition. New York: Penguin Books, 2012.Google Scholar
  24. Hutton, Ronald. The Triumph of the Moon: A History of Modern Pagan Witchcraft. New edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.Google Scholar
  25. Kelly, Aidan A. Crafting the Art of Magic, Book I: A History of Modern Witchcraft, 1939–1964. First edition. St. Paul: Llewellyn, 1991.Google Scholar
  26. Kraemer, Christine Hoff. Eros and Touch from a Pagan Perspective: Divided for Love’s Sake. First edition. New York: Routledge, 2013.Google Scholar
  27. Namaste, Viviane K. Sex Change, Social Change: Reflections on Identity, Institutions, and Imperialism. Toronto: Women’s Press, 2005.Google Scholar
  28. Ortner, Sherry B. “Is Female to Male as Nature Is to Culture?” In Woman, Culture, and Society, edited by M.Z. Rosaldo and L. Lamphere, 68–87. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  29. Ruether‚ Rosemary Radford. Goddesses and the Divine Feminine: A Western Religious History. Berkeley: University of California Press‚ 2005.Google Scholar
  30. Salomonsen, Jone. Enchanted Feminism: Ritual, Gender and Divinity Among the Reclaiming Witches of San Francisco. New York: Routledge, 2002.Google Scholar
  31. Serano, Julia. Whipping Girl: A Transsexual Woman on Sexism and the Scapegoating of Femininity. Emeryville, CA: Seal Press, 2007.Google Scholar
  32. Shuttle, Penelope, and Peter Redgrove. The Wise Wound: Myths, Realities, and Meanings of Menstruation. Revised edition. New York: Grove, 1988.Google Scholar
  33. Sjöö, Monica, and Barbara Mor. The Great Cosmic Mother: Rediscovering the Religion of the Earth 2nd. Second edition. San Francisco: HarperOne, 1994.Google Scholar
  34. Starhawk. Dreaming the Dark: Magic, Sex, and Politics. Fifteenth anniversary edition. Boston: Beacon Press, 1997.Google Scholar
  35. ———. The Spiral Dance: A Rebirth of the Ancient Religion of the Great Goddess. Twentieth anniversary edition. San Francisco: Harper Collins, 1999.Google Scholar
  36. Stone, Merlin. When God Was a Woman. First edition. New York: Mariner Books, 1976.Google Scholar
  37. Stryker, Susan, and Stephen Whittle. The Transgender Studies Reader. New York: Routledge, 2013.Google Scholar
  38. Thompson, Sarah, Philip Tanner, Calyxa Omphalos, and Jacobo Polanshek. Gender And Transgender In Modern Paganism. Edited by Gina Pond. First edition. Cupertino, CA: Circle of Cerridwen Press, 2012. http://st4r.org/genderbook.pdf.
  39. Varisco, Daniel Martin. “Virtual Dasein: Ethnography in Cyberspace.” CyberOrient: Online Journal of the Virtual Middle East 2.1 (2007). http://www.cyberorient.net/article.do?articleId=3698.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michelle Mueller
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Religious StudiesSanta Clara UniversitySanta ClaraUSA

Personalised recommendations