Development and Application of High-Speed Laser Visualization Techniques in Combustion Research

  • Marcus AldénEmail author
  • Mattias Richter


In order to fulfil the requirements of available energy resources, there is a great need to obtain a sustainable and environmentally friendly energy utilization using combustion processes. In order to do this, it is of utmost importance to utilize non-intrusive diagnostic techniques with high spatial and temporal resolution which can characterize the combustion process and also validate combustion models. During the last decades different laser techniques have proven to fulfil these requirements. A special requirement in practical applications when highly turbulent flames are to be investigated, is to be able to follow the phenomena in time, i.e. it is important to develop and apply high speed laser diagnostics. In the present chapter we are describing the use of high speed lasers together with high speed detectors which make it possible to probe in two dimensions even the fastest combustion phenomena in real time. The chapter is describing the use of a so called Multi YAG laser which together with a framing camera is able to record up to eight images. Also the use of a high repetition rate laser and a high power burst laser together with CMOS cameras and their application for studies of turbulent combustion phenomena are described. The examples are mainly taken from the author’s laboratory and include more academic studies of turbulent flames but also practical applications in engines.



The authors acknowledge the financial support from the Swedish Energy Agency and the ERC Advanced Grants TUCLA and DALDECS. The authors also acknowledge the work by various colleagues, especially past and present PhD students working in the field; Johan Hult, Johan Sjöholm, Jimmy Olofsson, Rikard Wellander, Zhenkan Wang and Panagiota Stamatoglou.

Supplementary material (13.5 mb)
Example of temporally resolved 3D iso-concentration surfaces of OH radicals in a laboratory flame (MOV 13806 kb)


  1. 1.
    A.C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Gordon and Breach Publisher, 1996)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    K. Kohse-Höinghaus, J.B. Jeffries (eds.), Applied Combustion Diagnostics (Taylor and Francis, New York, 2002)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    K. Kohse-Höinghaus, R.S. Barlow, M. Aldén, J. Wolfrum, Combustion at the focus: laser diagnostics and control. P. Combust. Inst. 30, 89–123 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Aldén, J. Bood, Z. Li, M. Richter, Visualization and understanding of combustion processes using spatially and temporally resolved laser diagnostic techniques. P. Combust. Inst. 33, 69–97 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Aldén, A. Omrane, M. Richter, G. Särner, Thermographic phosphors for thermometry: a survey of combustion applications. Prog. Energ. Combust. 37, 422–461 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    I. Duwel, M.C. Drake, T.D. Fansler, High-speed, high-resolution imaging of multihole fuel sprays in a firing spray-guided direct-injection gasoline engine. Paper presented at ILASS-Europe 19th annual conference, Nottingham, England, 2004Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Reeves, D.P. Towers, B. Tavender, C.H. Buckberry, A high-speed all digital technique for cycle-resolved 2-D flow measurement and flow visualization within SI engine cylinders. Opt. Laser. Eng. 31, 247–261 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. Hult, M. Richter, J. Nygren, M. Alden, A. Hultqvist, M. Christensen, B. Johansson, Application of a high-repetition-rate laser diagnostic system for single-cycle-resolved imaging in internal combustion engines. Appl. Optics 41, 5002–5014 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. Olofsson, Laser Diagnostic Techniques with Ultra-High Repetition Rate for Studies in Combustion Environments (Lund University, Dissertaton, 2007)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. Sjöholm, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, M. Alden, G. Goritz, K. Knebel, Ultra high speed pumping of an OPO laser, for high speed laser-induced fluorescence measurements. Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 025306 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    C.F. Kaminski, J. Hult, M. Aldén, High repetition rate planar laser induced fluorescence of OH in a turbulent non-premixed flame. Appl. Phys. B 68, 757–760 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. Hult, G. Josefsson, M. Aldén, C.F. Kaminski, Flame front tracking and simultaneous flow field visualisation in turbulent combustion, in Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon, 2000, Paper No. 26-2Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    C.F. Kaminski, J. Hult, M. Aldén, S. Lindenmaier, A. Dreizler, U. Maas, M. Baum, Spark ignition of turbulent methane/air mixtures revealed by time-resolved planar laser-induced fluorescence and direct numerical simulations. P. Combust. Inst. 28, 399–405 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    C. Heeger, B. Böhm, S.F. Ahmed, R. Gordon, I. Boxx, W. Meier, A. Dreizler, E. Mastorakos, Statistics of relative and absolute velocities of turbulent non-premixed edge flames following spark ignition. P. Combust. Inst. 32, 2957–2964 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    B. Peterson, V. Sick, Simultaneous flow field and fuel concentration imaging at 4.8 kHz in an operating engine. Appl. Phys. B 97, 887–895 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    N. Soulopoulos, J. Kerl, T. Sponfelder, F. Beyrau, Y. Hardalupas, A.M.K.P. Taylor, J.C. Vassilicos, Turbulent premixed flames on fractal-grid-generated turbulence. Fluid Dyn. Res. 45, 061404 (2013)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    I. Boxx, M. Stöhr, C. Carter, W. Meier, Sustained multi-kHz flame front and 3-component velocity-field measurements for the study of turbulent flames. Appl. Phys. B 95, 23–29 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. Juddoo, A.R. Masri, High-speed OH-PLIF imaging of extinction and re-ignition in non-premixed flames with various levels of oxidation. Combust. Flame 158, 902–914 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    R. Wellander, M. Richter, M. Aldén, Time-resolved (kHz) 3D imaging of OH PLIF in a flame. Exp. Fluids 55, 1–12 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    R. Wellander, M. Richter, M. Aldén, Time resolved, 3D imaging (4D) of two phase ow at a repetition rate of 1 kHz. Opt. Express 19, 21508–21514 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    W.R. Lempert, P.F. Wu, B. Zhang, R.B. Miles, J.L. Lowrance, V.J. Mastocola, W.F. Kosonocky, Pulse Burst Laser System for High Speed Flow Diagnostics, AIAA-96-0179 (1996)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    W.R. Lempert, P.F. Wu, B. Zhang, and R.B. Miles, Filtered Rayleigh Scattering Measurements Using a MHz Rate Pulse-Burst Laser System, AIAA-97-0500 (1997)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    B. Zhou, C. Brackmann, Z. Li, M. Aldén, X.-S. Bai, Simultaneous multi-species and temperature visualization of premixed flames in the distributed reaction zone regime. P. Combust. Inst. 35, 1409–1416 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    E. Kristensson, Z. Li, E. Berrocal, M. Richter, M. Aldén, Instantaneous 3D imaging of flame species by means of coded laser illumination (P. Combust, Inst, 2016). in pressGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Combustion PhysicsLund UniversityLundSweden

Personalised recommendations