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Overview of Positron-Emission Tomography Tracers for Metabolic Imaging

  • Ephraim Parent
  • Jonathan McConathyEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a cross-sectional imaging technique that uses compounds labeled with positron-emitting radionuclides to measure the concentration and location of the radiolabeled compounds over time. PET has been used for a broad range of biomedical research and is used routinely in clinical patient care for oncologic, neurologic, and cardiac applications. PET has several properties that make this technique particularly well-suited for metabolic imaging as well as some important limitations. This chapter discusses key principles and applications of PET tracers for metabolic imaging in mammalian systems. Many of the first PET tracers developed for metabolic imaging were radiolabeled forms of naturally occurring products such as glucose and amino acids [1, 2]. Due to the wide range of metabolic PET tracers that have been developed, it is not possible to comprehensively cover this field in a single chapter. We focus primarily on small molecule PET tracers that participate in metabolic pathways and/or serve as markers for the activity of specific metabolic pathways that have been used in human imaging studies.

Keywords

PET Positron-emission tomography Metabolism Metabolic imaging 

Abbreviations

Acetyl-CoA

Acetyl coenzyme A

ACS

Acetyl-CoA synthase

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

BAT

Brown adipose tissue

BBB

Blood-brain barrier

BOLD

Blood-oxygen-level dependent

CDP-choline

Diphosphate-choline

ChAT

Choline acetyltransferase

CK

Choline kinase

CO2

Carbon dioxide

CT

Computed tomography

Ctr1

Copper-transporter 1

Cu-ATSM

Copper-diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone)

DLBCL

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acids

EF5

2-Nitroimidazol-[18F]pentafluoropropyl acetamide

FAO

Fatty acid oxidation

FAS

Fatty acid synthesis

FASN

Fatty acid synthase

FAZA

[18F]Fluoroazomycin arabinoside

FDG

2-Deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose

FDOPA

3,4-Dihydroxy-6-[18F]fluoro-L-phenylalanine

FET

O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine

FGln

4-[18F]-(2S,4R)-Fluoroglutamine

FHDA

16-[18F]Fluorohexadecanoic acid

FLT

3′-Deoxy-3′-[18F]fluorothymidine

FMISO

[18F]Fluoromisonidazole

FSPG

4-(3-[18F]-(2S,4S)-fluorpropyl)glutamate

GRPR

Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor

HD

Hodgkin’s lymphoma

HIF-1α

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α

LCFA

Long-chain fatty acid

MeAIB

α-[11C]Methyl aminoisobutyric acid

MET

L-[11C]Methionine

MIP

Maximum intensity projection

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

mTOR

Mammalian target of rapamycin

NADH

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

NADPH

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NSCLC

Non-small cell lung cancer

PC

Phosphatidylcholine

PDC

Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

PET

Positron-emission tomography

PSA

Prostate-specific antigen

PSMA

Prostate-specific membrane antigen

RNA

Ribonucleic acid

SLC

Solute carrier

SPECT

Single photon emission computed tomography

SUV

Standardized uptake value

TCA

Tricarboxylic acid

tRNA

Transfer ribonucleic acid

UCP-1

Uncoupling protein 1

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of RadiologyEmory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyUniversity of Alabama at Birmingham School of MedicineBirminghamUSA
  3. 3.Division of Molecular Imaging and TherapeuticsUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA

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