Advertisement

Climate Change, Forest Fires, and Health in California

  • Ricardo Cisneros
  • Don Schweizer
  • Leland (Lee) Tarnay
  • Kathleen Navarro
  • David Veloz
  • C. Trent Procter
Chapter
Part of the Springer Climate book series (SPCL)

Abstract

Wildland fire is an important component to ecological health in California forests. Wildland fire smoke is a risk factor to human health. Exposure to smoke from fire cannot be eliminated, but managed fire in a fire-prone ecosystem for forest health and resiliency allows exposure to be mitigated while promoting other ecosystem services that benefit people. The California Sierra Nevada is a paragon of land management policy in a fire-prone natural system. Past fire suppression has led to extreme fuel loading where extreme fire events are much more likely, particularly with climate change increasing the length of fire season and the probability of extreme weather. We use the California Sierra Nevada to showcase the clash of increased development and urbanization, past land management policy, future scenarios including climate change, and the intertwining of ecological health and human health. Fire suppression to avoid smoke impact has proven to be an unreliable way to decrease smoke-related health impacts. Instead ecological beneficial fires should be employed, and their management should be based on smoke impacts at monitors, making air monitoring the foundation of fire management actions giving greater flexibility for managing fires. Tolerance of smoke impacts from restoration fire that is best for forest health and resiliency, as well as for human health, is paramount and preferred over the political expediency of reducing smoke impacts today that ignores that we are mortgaging these impacts to future generations.

Keywords

Wildland fire smoke Climate change Public health Air quality Policy Ecological health 

References

  1. Adetona O, Reinhardt TE, Domitrovich J, Broyles G, Adetona AM, Kleinman MT, Ottmar RD, Naeher LP (2016) Review of the health effects of wildland fire smoke on wildland firefighters and the public. Inhal Toxicol 28:95–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen E (1910) What protective cooperation did. Am For 16:641–643Google Scholar
  3. Alves CA, Goncalves C, Pio CA, Mirante F, Caseiro A, Tarelho L, Freitas MC, Viegas DX (2010) Smoke emissions from biomass burning in a Mediterranean shrubland. Atmos Environ 44:3024–3033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson MK (1996) The ethnobotany of Deergrass, Muhlenbergia Rigens (Poaceae): its uses and fire management by California Indian tribes. Econ Bot 4:409–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson MK (1999) The fire, pruning, and coppice management of temperate ecosystems for basketry material by California Indian tribes. Hum Ecol 27:79–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Asner GP, Brodrick PG, Anderson CB, Vaughn N, Knapp DE, Martin RE (2016) Progressive forest canopy water loss during the 2012–2015 California drought. Proc Natl Acad Sci 113(2):E249–E255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ayres A, Degolia A, Fienup M, Kim Y, Sainz J, Urbisci L, Viana D, Wesolowski G, Plantinga AJ, Tague C (2016) Social science/natural science perspectives on wildfire and climate change. Geogr Compass 10:67–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Battles JJ, Cousins SJM, Sanders JE (2014) Carbon dynamics and greenhouse emissions of standing dead trees in California mixed conifer forests. California Energy Commission, Berkeley, pp 44–53Google Scholar
  9. Beaty RM, Taylor AH (2008) Fire history and the structure and dynamics of a mixed conifer forest landscape in the northern Sierra Nevada, Lake Tahoe Basin, California, USA. For Ecol Manag 255:707–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bein KJ, Zhao Y, Johnston MV, Wexler AS (2008) Interactions between boreal wildfire and urban emissions. J Geophys Res Atmos 113:1–17Google Scholar
  11. Booze TF, Reinhardt TE, Quiring SJ, Ottmar RD (2004) A screening-level assessment of the health risks of chronic smoke exposure for wildland firefighters. J Occup Environ Hyg 1(5):296–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bowman DMJS, Johnston FH (2005) Wildfire smoke, fire management and human health. EcoHealth 2:76–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Broyles G (2013) Wildland firefighter smoke exposure, United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, National Technology and Development Program, 1351 1803 5100 Fire Management, 26 pagesGoogle Scholar
  14. Busenberg G (2004) Wildfire management in the United States: the evolution of a policy failure. Rev Policy Res 21(2):145–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Calkin DE, Thompson MP, Finney MA (2015) Negative consequences of positive feedbacks in US wildfire management. For Ecosyst 2(9):1–10Google Scholar
  16. Cermak RW (2005) Fire in the forest a history of forest fire control on the National Forests in California, 1898–1956. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region, R5-FR-003, 443 pages.Google Scholar
  17. Clinton NE, Gong P, Scott K (2006) Quantification of pollutants emitted from very large wildland fires in Southern California, USA. Atmos Environ 40:3686–3695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Collins BM, Kelly M, van Wagtendonk JW, Stephens SL (2007) Spatial patterns of large natural fires in Sierra Nevada wilderness areas. Landsc Ecol 22:545–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Collins BM, Lydersen JM, Everett RG, Fry DL, Stephens SL (2015) Novel characterization of landscape-level variability in historical vegetation structure. Ecol Appl 25(5):1174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Delfino RJ, Brummel S, Wu J, Stern H, Ostro B, Lipsett M, Winer A, Street DH, Zhang L, Tjoa T, Gillen DL (2009) The relationship of respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions to the southern California wildfires of 2003. Occup Environ Med 66:189–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dellasala DA, Williams JE, Williams CD, Franklin JF (2004) Beyond smoke and mirrors: a synthesis of fire policy and science. Conserv Biol 18:976–986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dokas I, Statheropoulos M, Karma S (2007) Integration of field chemical data in initial risk assessment of forest fire smoke. Sci Total Environ 376:72–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Duclos P, Sanderson LM, Lipsett M (1990) The 1987 forest fire disaster in California: assessment of emergency room visits. Arch Environ Health 45:53–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Earles M, North MP, Hurteau MD (2014) Wildfire and drought dynamics destabilize carbon stores of fire-suppressed forests. Ecol Appl 24(4):732–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Flannigan M, Cantin AS, de Groot WJ, Wotton M, Newbery A, Gowman LM (2013) Global wildland fire season severity in the 21st century. For Ecol Manag 294:54–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fowler CT (2003) Human health impacts of forest fires in the southern United States: a literature review. J Ecol Anthropol 7:39–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gaither CJ, Goodrick S, Murphy BE, Poudyal N (2015) An exploratory spatial analysis of social vulnerability and smoke plume dispersion in the U.S. south. Forests 6:1397–1421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gaughan DM, Piacitelli CA, Chen BT, Law BF, Virji MA, Edwards NT, Enright PL, Schwegler-Berry DE, Leonard SS, Wagner GR (2014) Exposures and cross-shift lung function declines in wildland firefighters. J Occup Environ Hyg 11(9):591–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gonzalez P, Battles JJ, Collins BM, Robards T, Saah DS (2015) Aboveground live carbon stock changes of California wildland ecosystems, 2001–2010. For Ecol Manag 348:68–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Greeley WB (1920) “Piute Forestry” or the fallacy of light burning. Timberman 21:38–39Google Scholar
  31. Hejl AM, Adetona O, Diaz-Sanchez D, Carter JD, Commodore AA, Rathbun SL, Naeher LP (2013) Inflammatory effects of woodsmoke exposure among wildland firefighters working at prescribed burns at the Savannah River site, SC. J Occup Environ Hyg 10(4):173–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hoff RM, Christopher SA (2009) Remote sensing of particulate pollution from space: have we reached the promised land? J Air Waste Manag Assoc 59:645–675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Holstius DM, Reid CE, Jesdale BM, Morello-Frosch R (2012) Birth weight following pregnancy during the 2003 southern California wildfires. Environ Health Perspect 120:1340–1345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hosseini S, Urbanski SP, Dixit P, Qi L, Burling IR, Yokelson RJ, Johnson TJ, Shrivastava M, Jung HS, Weise DR, Miller JW, Cocker DR III (2013) Laboratory characterization of PM emissions from combustion of wildland biomass fuels. J Geophys Res Atmos 118:9914–9929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hurteau MD, Brooks ML (2011) Short- and long-term effects of fire on carbon in US dry temperate forest systems. Bioscience 61(2):139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hurteau MD, Koch GW, Hungate BA (2008) Carbon protection and fire risk reduction: toward a full accounting of forest carbon offsets. Front Ecol Environ 6:493–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hurteau MD, Westerling AL, Wiedinmyer C, Bryant BP (2014) Projected effects of climate and development on California wildfire emissions through 2100. Environ Sci Technol 48:2298–2304Google Scholar
  38. Jacobson SK, Monroe MC, Marynowski S (2001) Fire at the wildland interface: the influence of experience and mass media on public knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Wildlife Society Bulletin 29:929–937Google Scholar
  39. Jones BA, Thacher JA, Chermak JM, Berrens RP (2016) Wildfire smoke health costs: a methods case study for a southwest US ‘mega-fire’. J Environ Econ Policy 5:181–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kauffman J (2004) Death rides the Forest: perceptions of fire, land use, and ecological restoration of western forests. Conserv Biol 18:878–882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kilgore B (1973) The ecological role of fire in Sierran conifer forests. Its application to National Park management. Quat Res 3:496–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kilgore B (1981) Fire in ecosystem distribution and structure: western forests and scrublands. In: Mooney HA, Bonnicksen TM, Christensen NL (tech. cord.), Proceedings of the conference: fire regimes and ecosystem properties, USDA Forest Service General Technical Report WO-GTR-26, 58–89.Google Scholar
  43. Koch E (1935) The passing of the Lolo Trail. J For 33:98–104Google Scholar
  44. Kochi I, Donovan GH, Champ PA, Loomis JB (2010) The economic cost of adverse health effects from wildfire-smoke exposure: a review. Int J Wildland Fire 19:803–817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kunzli N, Avol E, Wu J, Gauderman WJ, Rappaport E, Millstein J, Bennion J, McConnell R, Gilliland FD, Berhane K, Luhrmann F, Winer A, Peters JM (2006) Health effects of the 2003 Southern California wildfires on children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 174:1221–1228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Langmann B, Duncan B, Textor C, Trentmann J, van der Werf G (2009) Vegetation fire emissions and their impact on air pollution. Atmos Environ 43:107–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lee TS, Falter K, Meyer P, Mott J, Gwynn C (2009) Risk factors associated with clinic visits during the 1999 forest fires near the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation, California, USA. Int J Environ Health Res 19(5):315–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lenihan JM, Bachelet D, Neilson RP, Drapek R (2008) Response of vegetation distribution, ecosystem productivity, and fire to climate change scenarios for California. Clim Chang 87:215–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Leopold AS, Cain SA, Cottam CM, Gabrielson IN, Kimball TL (1963) Wildlife management in the National Parks, revisiting Leopold: resource stewardship in the National Parks A Report of the National Park System Advisory Board Science Committee, 2012, 3–21Google Scholar
  50. Levy S (2005) Rekindling native fires. Bioscience 55:303–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Li X, Song W, Lian L, Wei X (2015) Forest fire smoke detection using back-propagation neural network based on MODIS data. Remote Sens 7:4473–4498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Liu YQ (2004) Variability of wildland fire emissions across the contiguous United States. Atmos Environ 38:3489–3499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Liu D, Tager IB, Balmes JR, Harrison RJ (1992) The effect of smoke inhalation on lung function and airway responsiveness in wildland fire fighters. Am Rev Respir Dis 146(6):1469–1473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Liu JC, Pereira G, Uhl SA, Bravo MA, Bell ML (2015) A systemic review of the physical health impacts from non-occupational exposure to wildfire smoke. Environ Res 136:120–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lutz JA, Larson AJ, Swanson ME, Freund JA (2012) Ecological importance of large-diameter trees in a temperate mixed-conifer Forest. PLoS One 7(5):e36131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. van Mantgem P, Caprio AC, Stephenson NL, Das AJ (2016) Does prescribed fire promote resistance to drought in low elevation forests of the Sierra Nevada, California, USA? Fire Ecol 12(1):13–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Marshall GN, Schell TL, Elliott MN, Rayburn NR, Jaycox LH (2007) Psychiatric disorders among adults seeking emergency disaster assistance after a wildland-urban interface fire. Psychiatr Serv 58:509–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Martin TG, Watson EM (2016) Intact ecosystems provide best defence against climate change. Nat Clim Chang 6:122–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Meyer MD (2015) Forest fire severity patterns of resource objective wildfire in the southern Sierra Nevada. J For 113:49–56Google Scholar
  60. Miller JD, Collins BM, Lutz JA, Stephens SL, van Wagtendonk JW, Yasuda DA (2012a) Differences in wildfires among ecoregions and land management agencies in the Sierra Nevada region, California, USA. Ecosphere 3:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Miller JD, Skinner CN, Safford HD, Knapp EE, Ramirez CM (2012b) Trends and causes of severity, size, and number of fires in northwestern California, USA. Ecol Appl 22(1):184–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mirabelli MC, Kunli N, Avol E, Gilliland FD, Gauderman JW, McConnel R, Peters JM (2009) Respiratory symptoms following wildfire smoke exposure: airway size as a susceptibility factor. Epidemiology 20:451–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Moeltner K, Kim MK, Zhu E, Yang W (2013) Wildfire smoke and health impacts: a closer look a fire attributes and their marginal effects. J Environ Econ Manag 66:476–496Google Scholar
  64. Naeher LP, Brauer M, Lipsett M, Zelikoff JT, Simpson CD, Koenig JQ, Smith KR (2007) Woodsmoke health effects: a review. Inhal Toxicol 19:67–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. NIFC (2015) National Interagency Coordinator Center-Wildland Fire Summary and Statistics Annual Report 2015Google Scholar
  66. North M, Hurteau M (2011) High-severity wildfire effects on carbon stocks and emissions in fuels treated and untreated forest. For Ecol Manag 261:1115–1120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. North MP, Stephens SL, Collins BM, Agee JK, Aplet G, Franklin JF, Fule PZ (2015) Reform forest fire management. Science 349:1280–1281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Parks SA, Holsinger LM, Miller C, Nelson CR (2015) Wildland fires as a self-regulating mechanism: the role of previous burns and weather in limiting fire progression. Ecol Appl 25:1478–1492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Parsons DJ, DeBennedetti SH (1979) Impact of fire suppression on a mixed-conifer forest. For Ecol Manag 2:21–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pausas JG, Keeley JE (2009) A burning story: the role of fire in the history of life. Bioscience 59:593–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Potter C (2010) The carbon budget of California. Environ Sci Pol 13(5):373–383Google Scholar
  72. Potter C (2016) Landsat image analysis of tree mortality in the southern Sierra Nevada region of California during the 2013–2015 drought. J Earth Sci Clim Chang 7(342):1–7Google Scholar
  73. Preisler HK, Schweizer D, Cisneros R, Procter T, Ruminski M, Tarnay L (2015) A statistical model for determining impact of wildland fires on Particulate Matter (PM2.5) in Central California aided by satellite imagery of smoke. Environ Pollut 205:340–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Price OF, Williamson GJ, Henderson SB, Johnston F, Bowman DMJS (2012) The relationship between particulate pollution levels in Australian cities, meteorology, and landscape fire activity detected from MODIS hotspots., (2012). PLoS One 7:1–10Google Scholar
  75. Rappold AG, Stone SL, Cascio WE, Neas LM, Kilaru VJ, Carraway MS, Szykman JJ, Isling A, Cleve WE, Meredith JT, Vaughan-Batten H, Deyneka L, Devlin RB (2011) Peat bog wildfire smoke exposure in rural North Carolina is associated with cardiopulmonary emergency department visits assessed through syndromic surveillance. Environ Health Perspect 119:1415–1420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Reid CE, Jerrett M, Petersen ML, Pfister GG, Morefield PE, Tager IB, Raffuse SM, Balmes JR (2015) Spatiotemporal prediction of fine particulate matter during the 2008 northern California wildfires using machine learning. Environ Sci Technol 49:3887–3896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Reinhardt TE, Ottmar RD (2000) Smoke exposure at Western wildfires U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Research Paper PNW-RP-525Google Scholar
  78. Rittmaster R, Adamowicz WL, Amiro B, Pelletier RT (2006) Economic analysis of health effects from forest fires. Can J For Res 36:868–877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Schweizer D, Cisneros R (2014) Wildland fire management and air quality in the southern Sierra Nevada: Using the Lion Fire as a case study with a multi-year perspective on PM2.5 impacts and fire policy. J Environ Manag 144:265–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Schweizer D, Cisneros R (2016) Forest fire policy: change conventional thinking of smoke management to prioritize long-term air quality and public health. Air Qual Atmos Health. doi: 10.1007/s11869-016-0405-4
  81. Schweizer D, Cisneros R, Traina S, Ghezzhei T, Shaw G (2016) Using National Ambient Air Quality Standards for fine particulate matter to assess regional wildland fire smoke and air quality management, J Environ Manag, submittedGoogle Scholar
  82. Schweizer D, Cisneros R, Traina S, Ghezzehei TA, Shaw G (2017) Using national ambient air quality standards for fine particulate matter to assess regional wildland fire smoke and air quality management. J Environ Manag 201:345–356Google Scholar
  83. Scott AC (2000) The pre-quaternary history of fire. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 164:297–345Google Scholar
  84. Semmens EO, Domitrovich J, Conway K, Noonan CW (2016) A cross-sectional survey of occupational history as a wildland firefighter and health. Am J Ind Med 59:330–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Shindler B, Toman E (2003) Fuel reduction strategies in forest communities: a longitudinal analysis of public support, J For, September, 8–15.Google Scholar
  86. Silcox FA (1910) How the fires were fought. American Forestry 16:631–639Google Scholar
  87. Smith AMS, Kolden CA, Paveglio TB, Cochrane MA, Bowman DMJS, Moritz MA, Kliskey AD, Alessa L, Hudak AT, Hoffman CM, Lutz JA, Queen LP, Goetz SJ, Higuera PE, Boschetti L, Flannigan M, Yedinak KM, Watts AC, Strand EK, van Wagtendonk JW, Anderson JW, Stocks BJ, Abatzoglou JT (2016) The science of firescapes: achieving fire resilient communities. Bioscience 66:130–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sneeuwjagt RJ, Kline TS, Stephens SL (2013) Opportunities for improved fire use and management in California: lessons from Western Australia. Fire Ecol 9:14–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Southard L (2011) The history of cooperative forest fire control and the weeks act. For Hist Today, Spring/Fall, 17–20Google Scholar
  90. Spies TA, White EM, Kline JD, Fischer AP, Ager A, Bailey J, Bolte J, Koch J, Platt E, Olsen CS, Jacobs D, Shindler B, Steen-Adams MM, Hammer R (2014) Examining fire-prone forest landscapes as coupled human and natural systems. Ecol Soc 19:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Statheropoulos M, Karma S (2007) Complexity and origin of the smoke components as measured near the flame-front of a real forest fire incident: a case study. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 78:430–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Steel Z, Safford H, Viers J (2015) The fire frequency-severity relationship and the legacy of fire suppression in California forests. Ecosphere 6:1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Stephens SL, Lydersen JM, Collins BM, Fry DL, Meyer MD (2015) Historical and current landscape-scale ponderosa pine and mixed conifer forest structure in the southern Sierra Nevada. Ecosphere 6(5):1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Stephens SL, Collins BM, Biber E, Fule PZ (2016) U.S. federal fire and forest policy: emphasizing resilience in dry forests. Ecosphere 7(11):1–19Google Scholar
  95. Swetnam T (1993) Fire history and climate change in Giant sequoia groves. Science 262:885–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Swetnam T (2009) Multi-millennial fire history of the Giant Forest, sequoia National Park, California, USA. Fire Ecol 5:120–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Swiston J, Davidson W, Attridge S, Li G, Brauer M, van Eeden S (2008) Wood smoke exposure induces a pulmonary and systemic inflammatory response in firefighters. Eur Respir J 32(1):129–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Tham R, Erbas B, Akram M, Dennekamp M, Abramson MJ (2009) The impact of smoke on respiratory hospital outcomes during the 2002–2003 bushfire season, Victoria, Australia. Respirology 14:69–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Thelen B, French NH, Koziol BW, Billmire M, Owen RC, Johnson J, Gingsberg M, Loboda T, Wu S (2013) Modeling acute respiratory illness during the 2007 San Diego wildland fires using a coupled emissions-transport system and generalized additive modeling. Environ Health 12:94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Tian D, Wang Y, Bergin M, Hu Y, Liu Y, Russell AG (2008) Air quality impacts from prescribed forest fires under different management practices. Environ Sci Technol 42:2767–2772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Toth TD, Zhang J, Campbell JR, Hyer EJ, Reid JS, Shi Y, Westphal DL (2014) Impact of data quality and surface-to-column representativeness on the PM2.5/satellite AOD relationship for the contiguous United States. Atmos Chem Phys 14:6049–6062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Van de Water KM, Safford HD (2011) A summary of fire frequency estimates for California vegetation before Euro-American settlement. Fire Ecol 7:26–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Van Mantgem PJ, Stepheson NL, Byrne JC, Daniels LD, Franklin JF, Fule PZ, Harmon ME, Larson AJ, Smith JM, Taylor AH, Veblen (2009) Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the western United States. Science 323:521–524Google Scholar
  104. Vedal S, Dutton SJ (2006) Wildfire air pollution and daily mortality in a large urban area. Environ Res 102:29–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Vora C, Renvall MJ, Chao P, Ferguson P, Ramsdell JW (2011) 2007 San Diego wildfires and asthmatics. J Asthma 48:75–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. van Wagtendonk JW (2007) The history and evolution of wildland fire use. Fire Ecol 2:3–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Watson JEM, Shanahan DF, DiMarco M, Allan J, Laurance WF, Sanderson EW, Mackey B, Venter O (2016) Catastrophic declines in wilderness areas undermine global environment targets. Curr Biol 26:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Wegesser TC, Pinkerton KE, Last JA (2009) California wildfires of 2008: coarse and fine particulate matter toxicity. Environ Health Perspect 117:893–897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Westerling AL, Bryant BP (2008) Climate change and wildfire in California. Clim Chang 87:231–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Westerling AL, Hidalgo HG, Cayan DR, Swetnam TW (2006) Warming and earlier spring increase western US forest wildfire activity. Science 313:940–943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Westerling AL, Bryant BP, Preisler HK, Holmes TP, Hidalgo HG, Das T, Shrestha SR (2011) Climate change and growth scenarios for California wildfire. Clim Chang 109:445–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wiechmann ML, Hurteau MD, North MP, Koch GW, Jerabkova L (2015) The carbon balance of reducing wildfire risk and restoring process: an analysis of 10-year post-treatment carbon dynamics in a mixed-conifer forest. Clim Chang 132(4):709–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wiedinmyer C, Hurteau MD (2010) Prescribed fire as a means of reducing forest carbon emissions in the western United States. Environ Sci Technol 44(6):1926–1932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wigder NL, Jaffe DA, Saketa FA (2013) Ozone and particulate matter enhancements from regional wildfires observed at Mount Bachelor during 2004–2011. Atmos Environ 75:24–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Yao J, Henderson SB (2013) An empirical model to estimate daily forest fire smoke exposure over a large geographic area using air quality, meteorological, and remote sensing data. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 24:328–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Yao J, Brauer M, Henderson SB (2013) Evaluation of a wildfire smoke forecasting system as a tool for public health protection. Environ Health Perspect 121:1142–1147Google Scholar
  117. Youssouf H, Liousse C, Roblou L, Assamoi EM, Salonen RO, Maesano C, Banerjee S, Annesi-Maesano I (2014) Non-accidental health impacts of wildfire smoke. Int J Environ Res Public Health 11:11772–11804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Potter C (2010) The carbon budget of California. Environ Science & Policy 13 (5): 373-383Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ricardo Cisneros
    • 1
  • Don Schweizer
    • 1
    • 2
  • Leland (Lee) Tarnay
    • 2
  • Kathleen Navarro
    • 2
  • David Veloz
    • 1
  • C. Trent Procter
    • 2
  1. 1.Health Science Research InstituteUniversity of CaliforniaMercedUSA
  2. 2.USDA Forest ServicePacific Southwest RegionVallejoUSA

Personalised recommendations