Smart Cities: Distributed Intelligence or Central Planning?

  • Hermann Haken
  • Juval Portugali
Part of the Springer Optimization and Its Applications book series (SOIA, volume 125)


We discuss various aspects of the application of AI/IT to cities, based on Portugali’s concept of self-organizing cities, Haken’s Synergetics as theory of self-organizing complex systems, and in particular on the Haken and Portugali study of the interplay between Shannon information and pragmatic/semantic information in cognition. In terms of allometry, it is shown that increasing automatization of a city may lead even to an increase of load on humans and in extreme cases to a system’s instability.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Theoretical Physics, Center of SynergeticsStuttgart UniversityStuttgartGermany
  2. 2.ESLab (Environmental Simulation Lab), Department of Geography and the Human EnvironmentTel Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael

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