An Economic Lab Experiment for the Best Offer and Approval in Face-to-Face Service Interaction Situation

  • Kenju AkaiEmail author
  • Keiko Aoki
  • Kenta Onoshiro
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10371)


This article investigates what types of social distance affect the best offer from an employee and its approval from a customer in general service situation. We conduct the deception game (Gneezy, 2005) and investigate the effects of the social distance (face-to-face vs. anonymous interaction) in a laboratory experimental economics method. We observed increases in the rate at which employees made best offers and the rates at which customers accepted offers when face-to-face interactions were conducted. But a statistically significant difference was not observed. Also, the level of trust in others reported by the subject playing the role of the employee had a statistically significant positive effect in cases in which the employee made a best offer. It was also observed that, regardless of whether the interaction was conducted face to face or anonymously, if the subject playing the role of the customer exhibited a low level of tolerance for falsehood, he or she was less likely to accept offers.


Economic experiment Deception game Trust Service management 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bochet, O., Page, T., Putterman, L.: Communication and punishment in voluntary contribution experiments. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 60(1), 11–26 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bohnet, I., Frey, B.S.: Social distance and other-regarding behavior in dictator games: Comment. American Economic Review 89(1), 335–340 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bohnet, I., Frey, B.S.: The sound of silence in prisoner’s dilemma and dictator games. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 38(1), 43–57 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brosig, J., Weimann, J., Ockenfels, A.: The effect of communication media on cooperation. German Economic Review 4(2), 217–241 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Burnham, T.: Engineering altruism: a theoretical and experimental investigation of anonymity and gift giving. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 50(1), 133–144 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Charness, G., Gneezy, U.: What’s in a name? Anonymity and social distance in dictator and ultimatum games. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 68(1), 29–35 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Childs, J.: Gender differences in lying. Economics Letters 114(2), 147–149 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dreber, A., Johannesson, M.: Gender differences in deception. Economics Letters 99(1), 197–199 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Frohlich, N., Oppenheimer, J.: Some consequences of e-mail vs. face-to-face communication in experiment. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 35(3), 389–403 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gneezy, U.: Deception: The role of consequences. American Economic Review 95(1), 384–394 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gächter, S., Herrmann, B., Thöni, C.: Trust, voluntary cooperation, and socio-economic background: survey and experimental evidence. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 55(4), 505–531 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Holm, H.J., Kawagoe, T.: Face-to-Face Lying–an experimental study in Sweden and Japan. Journal of Economic Psychology 31(3), 310–321 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Isaac, R.M., Walker, J.M.: Communication and free-riding behavior - The voluntary contribution mechanism. Economic Inquiry 26(4), 585–608 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lacey, S., Bruwer, J., Li, E.: The role of perceived risk in wine purchase decisions in restaurants. International Journal of Wine Business Research 21(2), 99–117 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Roth, A.: Bargaining Experiments. In: Kagel, J., Roth, A.(eds.) Handbook of Experimental Economics, pp. 253–348. Princeton University Press, Princeton (1995)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Scharlemann, J.P.W., Eckel, C.C., Kacelnik, A., Wilson, R.K.: The value of a smile: Game theory with a human face. Journal of Economic Psychology 22(5), 617–640 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sutter, M.: Deception through telling the truth?! experimental evidence from individuals and teams. The Economic Journal 119(534), 47–60 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Shimane UniversityIzumoJapan
  2. 2.Yokohama National UniversityYokohamaJapan
  3. 3.Osaka UniversityOsakaJapan

Personalised recommendations