Advertisement

The Impact of Workload and Fatigue on Performance

  • Jialin Fan
  • Andrew P. Smith
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 726)

Abstract

Both workload and fatigue impair performance, and a high workload can lead to an increase in fatigue. This paper reports on two studies regarding workload and fatigue, and their impact on performance. Study 1 examined the risk factors for fatigue and the outcomes of it in relation to the rail industry. The results showed that workload is one of several predictors of fatigue. In Study 2 an online test integrating a single-item subjective measure and objective cognitive tests was used to examine the association between workload, fatigue and performance. Workload was found to be a factor that increased fatigue, which then resulted in a change in performance.

Keywords

Workload Occupational fatigue Performance Online measures 

References

  1. 1.
    Moos, R.H..: Psychosocial factors in the workplace. In: Handbook of Life Stress, Cognition and Health, pp. 193–209 (1988)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hockey, G.R.J., Wiethoff, M.: Assessing patterns of adjustment to the demands of work. In: The Psychobiology of Stress, pp. 231–240 (1990). doi: 10.1007/978-94-009-1990-7_21
  3. 3.
    Dorrian, J., Baulk, S.D., Dawson, D.: Work hours, workload, sleep and fatigue in Australian Rail Industry employees. Appl. Ergon. 42(2), 202–209 (2011). doi: 10.1016/j.apergo.2010.06.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Grech, M.R., Neal, A., Yeo, G., Humphreys, M., Smith, S.: An examination of the relationship between workload and fatigue within and across consecutive days of work: is the relationship static or dynamic? J. Occup. Health Psychol. 14(3), 231 (2009). doi: 10.1037/a0014952 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Parkes, K.R.: The effects of objective workload on cognitive performance in a field setting: a two-period cross-over trial. Appl. Cogn. Psychol. 9(7), 153–171 (1995). doi: 10.1002/acp.2350090710 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jahns, D.W.: A concept of operator workload in manual vehicle operations (1973)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Van Roy, K.S.: The Perceived Workload of ICU Physicians and Physician Extenders and Its Relationship to Burnout, Patient Safety, and Quality of Care. ProQuest, Ann Arbor (2008)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Johannsen, G.: Workload and workload measurement. In: Moray, N. (ed.) Mental Workload, pp. 3–11. Springer US, New York City (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cain, B.: A review of the mental workload literature. In: Defence Research and Development Canada Toronto, Human System Integration Section, Part II, vol. 4, pp. 1–34 (2007)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Park, J., Jung, W.: A study on the validity of a task complexity measure for emergency operating procedures of nuclear power plants - comparing with a subjective workload. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 53(5), 2962–2970 (2006). doi: 10.1109/TNS.2006.882149 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Broadbent, D.E.: The ergonomics society - the society’s lecture 1979: is a fatigue test now possible? Ergonomics 22(12), 1277–1290 (1979). doi: 10.1080/00140137908924702 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Krueger, G.P.: Sustained work, fatigue, sleep loss and performance: a review of the issues. Work Stress 3(2), 129–141 (1989). doi: 10.1080/02678378908256939 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Craig, A., Cooper, R.E.: Symptoms of acute and chronic fatigue. In: Handbook of Human Performance, vol. 3, pp. 289–339 (1992)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bartley, S.H., Chute, E.: Fatigue and Impairment in Man. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York (1947). doi: 10.1037/11772-000 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cameron, C.: A theory of fatigue. Ergonomics 16(5), 633–648 (1973). doi: 10.1080/00140137308924554 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chalder, T., Berelowitz, G., Pawlikowska, T., Watts, L., Wessely, S., Wright, D., Wallace, E.P.: Development of a fatigue scale. J. Psychosom. Res. 37(2), 147–153 (1993). doi: 10.1016/0022-3999(93)90081-P CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kim, E., Jesus Lovera, M.D., Schaben, M., Bourdette, D., Whitham, R.: Novel method for measurement of fatigue in multiple sclerosis: Real-Time Digital Fatigue Score. J. Rehabil. Res. Dev. 47(5), 477 (2010). doi: 10.1682/JRRD.2009.09.0151 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    British Office of Rail Regulation.: Managing Rail Staff Fatigue. http://orr.gov.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/2867/managing_rail_fatigue.pdf (2012)
  19. 19.
    Young, M.S., Brookhuis, K.A., Wickens, C.D., Hancock, P.A.: State of science: mental workload in ergonomics. Ergonomics 58(1), 1–17 (2015). doi: 10.1080/00140139.2014.956151 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Milner, C. J., Dick, G. L., Hammer, R. M.: Driver-somnolence and Eye-movements Studied in a Night-driving Simulation. (No. Monograph) (1984)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Beurskens, A.J., Bültmann, U., Kant, I., Vercoulen, J.H., Bleijenberg, G., Swaen, G.M.: Fatigue among working people: validity of a questionnaire measure. Occup. Environ. Med. 57(5), 353–357 (2000). doi: 10.1136/oem.57.5.353 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Charlton, S.G., Baas, P.H.: Fatigue, work-rest cycles, and psychomotor performance of New Zealand truck drivers. N. Z. J. Psychol. 30(1), 32–39 (2006)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    British Rail Accident Investigation Branch.: Derailment of two locomotives at East Somerset Junction (2008). http://www.raib.gov.uk/publications/investigation_reports/reports_2009/report282009.cfm
  24. 24.
    Bowler, N., Gibbon, W.H.: British Rail Accident Investigation Branch.: Fatigue and its contribution to railway incidents (2015). http://www.rssb.co.uk/Library/risk-analysis-and-safety-reporting/2015-02-str-fatigue-contribution-to-railway-incidents.pdf
  25. 25.
    Mohren, D.C.L., Swaen, G.M.H., Kant, I.J., Borm, P.J.A., Galama, J.M.D.: Associations between infections and fatigue in a Dutch working population: results of the Maastricht Cohort Study on Fatigue at Work. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 17(12), 1081–1087 (2001). doi: 10.1023/A:1021270924291 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Leone, S.S., Huibers, M.J., Kant, I., Van Schayck, C.P., Bleijenberg, G., Knottnerus, J.A.: Long-term predictors of outcome in fatigued employees on sick leave: a 4-year follow-up study. Psychol. Med. 36(09), 1293–1300 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2004.03.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Karasek Jr., R.A.: Job demands, job decision latitude, and mental strain: implications for job redesign. Adm. Sci. Q. 24, 285–308 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Parkes, K.R.: Personality and coping as moderators of work stress processes: models, methods and measures. Work Stress 8(2), 110–129 (1994). doi: 10.1080/02678379408259984 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cox, T., Ferguson, E.: Individual differences, stress and coping. Wiley (1991)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Laaksonen, M., Piha, K., Martikainen, P., Rahkonen, O., Lahelma, E.: Health-related behaviours and sickness absence from work. Occup. Environ. Med. 66(12), 840–847 (2009). doi: 10.1136/oem.2008.039248 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ferguson, S.A., Lamond, N., Kandelaars, K., Jay, S.M., Dawson, D.: The impact of short, irregular sleep opportunities at sea on the alertness of marine pilots working extended hours. Chronobiol. Int. 25(2–3), 399–411 (2008). doi: 10.1080/07420520802106819 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kjellberg, A.: Sleep deprivation and some aspects of performance. Waking Sleep 1(2), 139–143 (1977)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lal, S.K., Craig, A.: A critical review of the psychophysiology of driver fatigue. Biol. Psychol. 55(3), 173–194 (2001). doi: 10.1016/S0301-0511(00)00085-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mark, G.M., Smith, A.P.: Stress models: a review and suggested new direction. Occup. Health Psychol. 3, 111–144 (2008)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Williams, G.: Researching and developing mental health and well-being assessment tools for supporting employers and employees in wales. Ph.D. thesis, Cardiff University, Cardiff (2014)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Williams, J., Smith, A.P.: Stress, job satisfaction and mental health of NHS nurses. In: Contemporary Ergonomics and Human Factors 2013: Proceedings of the International Conference on Ergonomics and Human Factors 2013, Cambridge, UK, 15–18 April 2013, p. 95. Taylor & Francis (2013)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Crook, T.H., Kay, G.G., Larrabee, G.J.: Computer-based cognitive testing. in: Neuropsychological Assessment of Neuropsychiatric and Neuromedical Disorders, pp. 84–100 (2009)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Garaizar, P., Vadillo, M.A., Lopez-de-Ipina, D., Matute, H.: Measuring software timing errors in the presentation of visual stimuli in cognitive neuroscience experiments. PLoS ONE 9(1), e85108 (2014). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085108 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Barnhoorn, J.S., Haasnoot, E., Bocanegra, B.R., van Steenbergen, H.: QRTEngine: an easy solution for running online reaction time experiments using Qualtrics. Behav. Res. Methods 47(4), 918–929 (2015). doi: 10.3758/s13428-014-0530-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hughes, D.G., Folkard, S.: Adaptation to an 8-h shift in living routine by members of a socially isolated community. Nature (1976). doi: 10.1038/264432a0
  41. 41.
    Buchner, A., Erdfelder, E., Faul, F.: How to use G*Power (1997). http://www.psycho.uni-duesseldorf.de/aap/projects/gpower/how_to_use_gpower.html
  42. 42.
    Volker, I., Kirchner, C., Bock, O.L.: On the relationship between subjective and objective measures of fatigue. Ergonomics, 1–5 (2015). doi: 10.1080/00140139.2015.1110622
  43. 43.
    Dinges, D.F., Powell, J.W.: Microcomputer analyses of performance on a portable, simple visual RT task during sustained operations. Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 17(6), 652–655 (1985). doi: 10.3758/BF03200977 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Baddeley, A.D.: A 3 min reasoning test based on grammatical transformation. Psychon. Sci. 10(10), 341–342 (1968). doi: 10.3758/BF03331551 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bond, A., Lader, M.: The use of analogue scales in rating subjective feelings. Br. J. Med. Psychol. 47(3), 211–218 (1974). doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8341.1974.tb02285.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Smith, A.P., Allen, P.H., Wadsworth, E.J.K.: Seafarer fatigue: the Cardiff research programme. Centre for Occupational and Health Psychology, Cardiff, UK (2006)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Psychology, Centre for Occupational and Health PsychologyCardiff UniversityCardiffUK

Personalised recommendations