Adaptive Automation and the Third Pilot: Managing Teamwork and Workload in an Airline Cockpit

  • Joan Cahill
  • Tiziana C. Callari
  • Florian Fortmann
  • Stefan Suck
  • Denis Javaux
  • Andreas Hasselberg
  • Sybert H. Stoeve
  • Bas A. van Doorn
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 726)


The objective of this paper is to present a new adaptive automation concept which offers an innovative ‘team’ centred approach to solving human factors/workload management problems. The A-PiMod concept/approach is defined by the concept of partnership – specifically, the “Third Pilot” and the crew and automation are in charge together. We are proposing partnership as opposed to dynamic changes in control function where changes can be controlled autonomously by the system. In support of this, a new multimodal concept is proposed which supports improved assessment of crew state/workload (i.e. information inputs re crew activity/interactions provides a means to communicate with the crew in relation to crew state and decision support, and allows for flexible crew/cockpit interaction).


Adaptive automation Workload Crew state monitoring Pilot decision making Stakeholder evaluation Multimodal interaction and cockpit displays 



The research leading to these results/preliminary outcomes has received funding from the European Commission’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement N. 605141 - Applying Pilot Models for Safety Aircraft (A-PiMod) Project. We would like to thank member of the A-PiMod Project Team and our COP members – particularly, Paul Cullen, William Butler, Martin Duffy and Stephen Duffy.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joan Cahill
    • 1
  • Tiziana C. Callari
    • 1
  • Florian Fortmann
    • 2
  • Stefan Suck
    • 2
  • Denis Javaux
    • 3
  • Andreas Hasselberg
    • 4
  • Sybert H. Stoeve
    • 5
  • Bas A. van Doorn
    • 5
  1. 1.Centre for Innovative Human Systems, School of PsychologyTrinity College DublinDublin 2Ireland
  2. 2.R&D Division TransportationOFFIS – Institute for Information TechnologyOldenburgGermany
  3. 3.Symbio Concepts & Products S.P.R.LBassengeBelgium
  4. 4.Institut für FlugführungDeutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR)BrunswickGermany
  5. 5.Aerospace Operations Safety InstituteNetherlands Aerospace Centre NLRAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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