Hyperkeratosis of the Nipple and Areola

Chapter

Abstract

Hyperkeratosis of the nipple and areola (HNA) is a rare, benign, and asymptomatic disorder of the nipple-areola complex. The author discusses the history of hyperkeratosis of the nipple-areola complex (NAC), classification, etiology, pathology, association with mycosis fungoides, mucocutaneous candidiasis, graft versus host disease, and syringocystadenoma papilliferum.

The lesions present as verrucous thickening with brown pigmentation of the nipple-areola complex, and histologically, there is thickening and downward hyperplasia of the epidermis with filiform elongation of the rete ridges associated with papillary dermis expansion by sclerotic collagen bundles and scattered inflammatory cells. Demographic findings, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, histopathologic changes, and treatment are described.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Dermatopathology and Faculty of MedicineRazi Skin Hospital, Tehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Pathology and Faculty of MedicineCancer Institute, Tehran University of Medial Sciences, Imam Khomeini Hospital ComplexTehranIran

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