Governance for Inclusive Development in South and East Asia: A Comparison of India and China

  • Bill Chou
  • Ahmed Shafiqul Huque
Chapter

Abstract

China and India are two major political systems in the regions of. East and South Asia, and a comparison of their approaches in promoting inclusive development is illustrative. This chapter is grounded on the fact that the population of the two most populous countries accounts for more than one-third of the global population. Therefore, the plans and practices designed for inclusiveness have significance for improving the well-being of mankind throughout the world, and allow for lessons to be drawn by other countries in the two regions. A comparison of the initiatives in China and India provides a useful insight into explaining the extent of their effectiveness in achieving inclusive development and public engagement. This will also provide an opportunity to examine the validity of the important doctrine of inclusive development. This chapter finds that democracy and participation are important in many other respects, but they may or may not contribute to the goal of inclusive development. It also emphasizes that China’s economic success is not necessarily resulting in inclusive development. It is the institutions that produce smart social policies targeting development goals that matter more.

References

  1. Article 19. (2004). Freedom of Information Training Manual for Public Officials. https://www.article19.org/data/files/pdfs/tools/foitrainersmanual.pdf
  2. Banisar, D. (2006). Freedom of Information Around the World 2006: A Global Survey of Access to Government Information Laws. London: Privacy International.Google Scholar
  3. Bennett, C. J. (1997). Understanding Ripple Effects: The Cross-national Adoption of Policy Instruments for Bureaucratic Accountability. Governance: An International Journal of Policy and Administration, 10(3), 213–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blecher, M., & Shue, V. (2001). Into Leather: State-Led Development and the Private Sector in Xinji. China Quarterly, 166, 368–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown, D. S., & Mobarak, A. M. (2009). The Transforming Power of Democracy: Regime Type and the Distribution of Electricity. American Political Science Review, 103(May), 193–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chan, K. W. (2009). The Chinese Hukou System at 50. Eurasian Geography and Economics, 50(2), 197–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chibber, V. (2006). Locked in Place: State-Building and Late Industrialization in India. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Chou, B. K. P. (2009). Government and Policymaking Reform in China: The Implications of Governing Capacity. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Chou, B. K. P., & Huque, A. S. (2016). Does Public Participation Matter: Inclusive Growth in East Asia. Asian Journal of Political Science. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/02185377.2016.1164067
  10. Clark, R. (1991). Contrasting Perspectives on Women’s Access to Prestigious Occupations: A Cross-National Investigation. Social Science Quarterly, 72(1), 20–32.Google Scholar
  11. Das, G. M. (1987). Selective Discrimination Against Female Children in Rural Punjab, India. Population and Development Review, 13(1), 77–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Drèze, J., & Sen, A. (2002). India: Development and Participation (p. 125). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Drèze, J., & Sen, A. (2013). An Uncertain Glory: India and Its Contradictions. Princeton/Oxford: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Eastin, J., & Prakash, A. (2013). Economic Development and Gender Equality: Is There a Gender Kuznets Curve? World Politics, 65(1), 156–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Edin, M. (2003). State Capacity and Local Agent Control in China: CCP Cadre Management from a Township Perspective. The China Quarterly, 173, 35–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Evans, P. (1995). Embedded Autonomy: States and Industrial Transformation. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Forsythe, N., Korzeniewicz, R. P., & Durrant, V. (2000). Gender Inequalities and Economic Growth: A Longitudinal Evaluation. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 48(3), 573–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gauri, V., & Khaleghian, P. (2002). Immunization in Developing Countries: Its Political and Organizational Determinants. World Development, 30(December), 2109–2132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gerring, J., Thacker, S. C., & Alfaro, R. (2012). Democracy and Human Development. The Journal of Politics, 74(1), 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ghobarah, H., Adam, P. H., & Russett, B. (2004). Comparative Public Health: The Political Economy of Human Misery and Well-Being. International Studies Quarterly, 48(1), 73–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Goulet, D. (1978). The Cruel Choice: A New Concept in the Theory of Development. New York: Atheneum.Google Scholar
  22. Hira, A., Huxtable, H., & Leger, A. (2005). Deregulation and Participation: An International Survey of Participation in Electricity Regulation. Governance, 18(1), 53–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Huang, Y. (2008). Capitalism with Chinese Characteristics: Entrepreneurship and the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hung, H. (2015). The China Boom: Why China Will Not Rule the World. New York: Columbia University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Iversen, T., & Rosenbluth, F. (2005). Gender Socialization: How Bargaining Power Shapes Social Norms and Political Attitudes (Working Paper, No. 2008-0064). Cambridge, MA: Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, Harvard University.Google Scholar
  26. Lal, D. (1995). India and China: Contrasts in Economic Liberalization? World Development, 23(9), 1475–1494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lee, C. K. (1999). From Organized Dependence to Disorganized Despotism: Changing Labor Regimes in Chinese Factories. China Quarterly, 157, 44–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Li, S., & Luo, C. (2008). Growth Pattern, Employment, and Income Inequality: What the Experience of Republic of Korea and Taipei, China Reveals to the People’s Republic of China. Asian Development Review, 25(1 & 2), 100–118.Google Scholar
  29. Lin, Y. J., & Liu, P. (2008). Inclusive Growth Toward a Harmonious Society in the People’s Republic of China: Policy Implications. Asian Development Review, 25(1 & 2), 22–33.Google Scholar
  30. Lin, Y. J., Zhuang, J., Tang, M., & Lin, T. (2008). Inclusive Growth Toward a Harmonious Society in the People’s Republic of China: An Overview. Asian Development Review, 25(1 & 2), 1–14.Google Scholar
  31. Malenbaum, W. (1982). Modern Economic Growth in India and China: The Comparison Revisited, 1950–1980. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 31(1), 45–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Manion, M. (2008). When Communist Party Candidates Can Lose, Who Wins? Assessing the Role of Local People’s Congresses in the Selection of Leaders in China. The China Quarterly, 195, 607–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. O’Brien, K. J. (1990). Reform Without Liberalization: China’s National People’s Congress and the Politics of Institutional Change. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. OECD. (2001). Citizens as Partners: Information, Consultation and Public Participation in Policy-Making. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  35. Oi, J. C. (1999). Rural China Takes Off: Institutional Foundations of Economic Reform. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  36. Perry, E., & Goldman, M. (Eds.). (2007). Grassroots Political Reform in Contemporary China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Read, B. L. (2000). Revitalizing the State’s Urban “Nerve Tips”. The China Quarterly, 163, 806–820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Richards, D. L., & Gelleny, R. (2007). Women’s Status and Economic Globalization. International Studies Quarterly, 51(4), 855–876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Roberts, A. (2006). Blacked Out: Government Secrecy in the Information Age. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ross, M. (2006). Is Democracy Good for the Poor? American Journal of Political Science, 50, 860–874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rothstein, B. (2015). The Chinese Paradox of High Growth and Low Quality of Government: The Cadre Organization Meets Max Weber. Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions, 28(4), 533–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Saich, T. (2015). Governance and Politics of China. Houndmills/Basingstoke/Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Seers, D. (1979). The Meaning of Development. In D. Lehmann (Ed.), Development Theory: Four Critical Studies (pp. 9–30). London: Frank Cass.Google Scholar
  44. Sen, A. (1999). Development as Freedom. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  45. Sen, A. (2005). What China Could Teach India, Then and Now, Citigroup and Asia Society Global Issues Series. http://asiasociety.org/amartya-sen-what-china-could-teach- india-then-and-now
  46. Shirk, S. L. (1993). The Political Logic of Economic Reform in China. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  47. Tandon, A., & Zhuang, Z. (2007). Inclusiveness of Economic Growth in the People’s Republic of China: What Do Population Health Outcomes Tell Us? (ERD Policy Brief Series No.47). Manila: Economics and Research Department, Asian Development Bank.Google Scholar
  48. The Economist. (2015, December 19). Internal Migration: Shifting Barrier. http://www.economist.com/news/china/21684145-government-reforms-socially-divisive-system-warily-shifting-barriers
  49. Trebilcock, M. J., & Prado, M. M. (2011). What Makes Poor Countries Poor? Institutional Determinants of Development. Cheltenham/Northampton: Edward Elgar.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. UNDP. (2013). Human Development Report 2013: The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. New York: UNDP.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. UNDP. (2015). Technical Notes Calculating the Human Development Indices– Graphical Presentation. Human Development Report 2015. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2015_technical_notes.pdf
  52. Unger, J. (1981). Education Under Mao: Class and Competition in Canton Schools, 1960–1980. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  53. United Nations. (2012). Future We Want: Outcome Document. Sustainable Development: Knowledge Platform. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/futurewewant.html
  54. Wade, R. (1990). Governing the Market: Economic Theory and the Role of Government in East Asian Industrialization. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Walder, A. G. (1989). Social Change in Post-Revolution China. Annual Review of Sociology, 15, 405–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wang, S., & Hu, A. (1999). The Political Economy of Uneven Development: The Case of China. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  57. Wood, A., & Calandrino, M. (2000). When the Other Giant Awakens: Trade and Human Resources in India (IND Paper). Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex. https://www.ids.ac.uk/IDS/global/pdfs/ind-paper2.pdf
  58. World Justice Project. (2015). Rule of Law Index 2015. http://data.worldjusticeproject.org/
  59. Xia, M. (2008). The People’s Congresses and Governance in China: Toward a Network Mode of Governance. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  60. Xiao, W. (2013). Freedom of Information Reform in China: Information Flow Analysis. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 79(4), 790–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yang, K., & Callahan, K. (2007). Citizen Involvement Efforts and Bureaucratic Responsiveness: Participatory Values, Stakeholder Pressures, and Administrative Practicality. Public Administration Review, 67(2), 249–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Yuan, Z. (2012). The Failure of China’s “Democratic” Reforms. New York: Lexington.Google Scholar
  63. Zafarullah, H., & Huque, A. S. (2012). Managing Development in a Globalized World: Concepts, Processes, Institutions. Boca Raton/London/New York: CRC Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bill Chou
    • 1
  • Ahmed Shafiqul Huque
    • 2
  1. 1.The Chinese University of Hong KongHong KongChina
  2. 2.McMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada

Personalised recommendations