Aging: from Demography to Epidemiology

  • Nicola Ferrara
  • Klara Komici
  • Giuseppe Rengo
  • Graziamaria Corbi
Chapter

Abstract

Aging of the worldwide population is progressively increasing, in relation to augmented life expectancy (LE), which in 2016 was around 71.4 years according to the World Health Organization (WHO), with a greater expectation in women than men all over the world [1]. Today, for the first time in history, even in less developed countries, most people can expect to live for more than 60 years, especially because of the reduction in childhood mortality [2], while in high-income countries, it is mainly due to the increase in life expectancy of over 60-year-old individuals [3, 4]. Currently, it has been estimated that life expectancy of 60-year-old people rose from 18.7 years in 2000 to 20.4 years in 2015, with different regional rates. In particular, 12 European countries, including Italy, in 2015 showed a life expectancy that exceeded 82 years of age, with women living longer than men in every part of the world [1]. In 2016, WHO data underlined that LE was 73.8 years for women and 69.1 years for men, quite similar to 2015 data [1].

References

  1. 1.
    WHO. World Health Statistics. Monitoring health for the SDGS (Sustainable Development Goals); 2016: http://www.who.int/gho/publications/world_health_statistics/2016/en/ (Accessed on 04 Jan 2017).
  2. 2.
    Bloom DE. 7 billion and counting. Science. 2011;333:562–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Olshansky SJ, Antonucci T, Berkman L, et al. Differences in life expectancy due to race and educational differences are widening, and many may not catch up. Health Aff. 2012;31:1803–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Beard JR, Officer A, de Carvalho IA, Sadana R, Pot AM, Michel JP, Lloyd-Sherlock P, Epping-Jordan JE, Peeters GM, Mahanani WR, Thiyagarajan JA, Chatterji S. The world report on ageing and health: a policy framework for healthy ageing. Lancet. 2016;387(10033):2145–54.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00516-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
  6. 6.
    Eurostat. Eurostat yearbook. statistics explained. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Population_structure_and_ageing (Accessed on 04 Jan 2017).
  7. 7.
    ISTAT. Popolazione. Italia in cifre edizione 2016. http://www.istat.it/it/archivio/popolazione-e-famiglie (Accessed on 04 Jan 2017).
  8. 8.
    WHO. An overarching health indicator for the post-2015 development agenda. Brief summary of some proposed candidate indicators. Background paper for expert consultation, 11–12 December 2014, Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014 (http://www.who.int/healthinfo/indicators/hsi_indicators_SDG_TechnicalMeeting_December2015_BackgroundPaper.pdf?ua=1).
  9. 9.
    ISTAT. Rapporto annuale 2016. La situazione del paese. http://www.istat.it/it/files/2016/05/Ra2016.pdf.
  10. 10.
    Benziger CP, Roth GA, Moran AE. The global burden of disease study and the preventable burden of NCD. Glob Heart. 2016;11(4):393–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gheart.2016.10.024.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
  12. 12.
    ISTAT. Stato di salute: Classi di età. Salute e sanità I.Stat. http://dati.istat.it (Accessed on 03 Jan 2017).
  13. 13.
    ISTAT. Consumo di farmaci: Classi di età. Salute e sanità I.Stat. http://dati.istat.it (Accessed on 05 Jan 2017).
  14. 14.
    ISTAT. Italia in cifre 2016. http://www.istat.it/it/files/2016/12/ItaliaCifre2016.pdf Accessed on 07 Jan 2017).
  15. 15.
    Thomas R, Huntley AL, Mann M, et al. Pharmacist-led interventions to reduce unplanned admissions for older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Age Ageing. 2014;43(2):174–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Corbi G, Gambassi G, Pagano G, Russomanno G, Conti V, Rengo G, Leosco D, Bernabei R, Filippelli A, Ferrara N. Impact of an innovative educational strategy on medication appropriate use and length of stay in elderly patients. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015;94(24):e918.  https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000000918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Osservatorio Nazionale sull’impiego dei farmaci -AIFA. L’uso dei farmaci in Italia. Rapporto Nazionale Anno 2015. http://www.agenziafarmaco.gov.it/sites/default/files/Rapporto_OsMed_2015.pdf.
  18. 18.
    WHO. Global report on diabetes. Executive summary, World Health Organization; 2016. www.who.int/diabetes/global-report (Accessed on 05 Jan 2017).
  19. 19.
    Brody KK, Johnson RE, Douglas RL. Evaluation of a self-report screening instrument to predict frailty outcomes in aging populations. Gerontologist. 1997;37:182–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Carlson JE, Zocchi KA, Bettencourt DM, Gambrel ML, Freeman JL, Zhang D, et al. Measuring frailty in the hospitalized elderly: concept of functional homeostasis. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1998;77:252–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fried LP. Conference on the physiologic basis of frailty. April 28, 1992, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. introduction. Aging Clin Exp Res. 1992;4:251–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rockwood K, Fox RA, Stolee P, Robertson D, Beattie BL. Frailty in elderly people: an evolving concept. CMAJ. 1994;150:489–95.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rockwood K, Hogan DB, MacKnight C. Conceptualization and measurement of frailty in elderly people. Drugs Aging. 2000;17:295–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fried LP, Tangen CM, Walston J, Newman AB, Hirsh C, Gottdiener J, et al. Cardiovascular health study collaborative research group: frailty in older adults: evidence for a phenotype. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001;56A:M146–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Op het Veld LP, van Rossum E, Kempen GI, de Vet HC, Hajema K, Beurskens AJ. Fried phenotype of frailty: cross-sectional comparison of three frailty stages on various health domains. BMC Geriatr. 2015;15:77.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-015-0078-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ensrud KE, Ewing SK, Taylor BC, Fink HA, Cawthon PM, Stone KL, Hillier TA, Cauley JA, Hochberg MC, Rodondi N, Tracy JK, Cummings SR. Comparison of 2 frailty indexes for prediction of falls, disability, fractures, and death in older women. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168(4):382–9.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archinternmed.2007.113.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rockwood K, Song X, MacKnight C, Bergman H, Hogan DB, McDowell I, Mitnitski A. A global clinical measure of fitness and frailty in elderly people. CMAJ. 2005;173(5):489–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jones DM, Song X, Rockwood K. Operationalizing a frailty index from a standardized comprehensive geriatric assessment. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004;52(11):1929–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Searle SD, Mitnitski A, Gahbauer EA, Gill TM, Rockwood K. A standard procedure for creating a frailty index. BMC Geriatr. 2008;8:24.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2318-8-24.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rockwood K, Mitnitski A. Frailty defined by deficit accumulation and geriatric medicine defined by frailty. Clin Geriatr Med. 2011;27:17–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicola Ferrara
    • 1
  • Klara Komici
    • 1
  • Giuseppe Rengo
    • 1
  • Graziamaria Corbi
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Translational Medical SciencesFederico II University of NaplesNaplesItaly
  2. 2.Department of Medicine and Health SciencesUniversity of MoliseCampobassoItaly

Personalised recommendations