Embryology and Anatomy of the Developing Face

  • Lama KhatibEmail author
  • Elizabeth Bhoj
  • Bart Peter Leroy


The study of embryology and human morphology can provide an enhanced understanding of anatomy in surgical intervention. This chapter will review the critical stages in embryologic development of the human face and how alterations in normal development can produce syndromic and non-syndromic changes in craniofacial, adnexal, and orbital structures.


Molecular development Cytogenetics Morphogenesis Developmental field levels Craniofacial development Neural crest cell migration Pharyngeal arches Frontonasal prominence Maxillary processes Mandibular processes Craniosynostoses Cryptophthalmos Eyelid and orbital anatomy 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lama Khatib
    • 1
    Email author
  • Elizabeth Bhoj
    • 2
  • Bart Peter Leroy
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Pediatric Ophthalmology, Oculoplastic and Orbital Surgery, Ophthalmology DivisionChildren’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Pediatrics and GeneticsChildren’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Department of OphthalmologyGhent University HospitalGhentBelgium
  4. 4.Division of OphthalmologyThe Children’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA

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