Advertisement

The Emergence of Knowledge Management

Chapter
Part of the Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning book series (IAKM, volume 4)

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to show that knowledge management emerged as a necessity in the post-industrial society and the new knowledge economy. Instead of starting from defining knowledge management and describing its functions to create a prescriptive framework, the chapter begins with the broad picture of the changes in the structure of economy and in its critical assets. These changes produced a new type of economy where scarcity of tangible resources has been replaced by the affluence of intangible resources, and the economic theories of resource optimization and profit maximization have been aligned to knowledge creation and business sustainability. The engine of knowledge economy is the knowledge-based organization, where the pressure of efficiency and productivity should be relaxed. Instead, there is a need to develop new metrics able to measure the quality of knowledge and to evaluate the contribution of organizational learning to the firm’s performance. Finally, the chapter presents the new attributes of knowledge workers and knowledge processes. Knowledge creation, acquisition, storing and retrieving, sharing and distribution, transformation and use become the components of knowledge management. Since knowledge and its functions constitute strategic resources, knowledge management bridges the gap between operational management and strategic management.

References

  1. Al-Ali, N. (2003). Comprehensive intellectual capital management. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  2. Alvesson, M., & Karreman, D. (2001). Odd couple: Making sense of the curious concept of knowledge management. Journal of Management Studies, 38(7), 995–1018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Argote, L. (2013). Organizational learning: Creating, retaining and transferring knowledge (2nd ed.). Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Argyris, C. (1999). On organizational learning (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  5. Barney, J. B. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), 99–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barney, J. B., & Clark, D. N. (2007). Resource-based theory: Creating and sustaining competitive advantage. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Bell, D. (1999). The coming of post-industrial society: A venture in social forecasting. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  8. Bennet, D., & Bennet, A. (2003). The rise of the knowledge organization. In C. W. Holsapple (Ed.), Handbook on knowledge management (Vol. 1, pp. 5–21). Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  9. Bratianu, C. (2009). The frontier of linearity in the intellectual capital metaphor. Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management, 7(4), 415–424.Google Scholar
  10. Bratianu, C. (2011). Changing paradigm for knowledge metaphors from dynamics to thermodynamics. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 28(2), 160–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bratianu, C. (2013). Nonlinear integrators of the organizational intellectual capital. In M. Fathi (Ed.), Integration of practice-oriented knowledge technology: Trends and perspectives (pp. 3–16). Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bratianu, C. (2015a). Organizational knowledge dynamics: Managing knowledge creation, acquisition, sharing, and transformation. Hershey: IGI Global.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bratianu, C. (2015b). Developing strategic thinking in business education. Management Dynamics in the Knowledge Economy, 3(3), 409–429.Google Scholar
  14. Coase, R. H. (1937). The nature of the firm. Economica, 4(16), 386–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cook, J., & Wall, T. (1980). New work attitude measure of trust, organizational commitment and personal need nonfulfillment. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 53(1), 39–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Crossan, M. M., Lane, H. W., & White, R. E. (1999). An organizational learning framework: From intuition to institution. Academy of Management Review, 24(3), 532–537.Google Scholar
  17. Dalkir, K. (2005). Knowledge management in theory and practice. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  18. Davenport, T. H. (2005). Thinking for a living: How to get better performance and results from knowledge workers. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  19. Davenport, T. H., & Harris, J. G. (2007). Competing of analytics: The new science of winning. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  20. Davenport, T. H., & Prusak, L. (2000). Working knowledge: How organizations manage what they know. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  21. DeLong, D. W. (2004). Lost knowledge: Confronting the threat of an aging workforce. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Drucker, P. F. (2008). The age of discontinuity: Guidelines to our changing society. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  23. Eisenhardt, K. M., & Martin, J. A. (2000). Dynamic capabilities: What they are? Strategic Management Journal, 21(10/11), 1105–1121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Florida, R. (2002). The rise of the creative class: And how it’s transforming work, leisure, community and everyday life. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  25. Garrat, B. (2001). The learning organization: Developing democracy at work. London: Harper Collins Business.Google Scholar
  26. Gladwell, M. (2005). Blink: The power of thinking without thinking. New York: Back Bay Books.Google Scholar
  27. Grant, R. M. (1996). Toward a knowledge-based theory of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 17(Winter), 109–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Grant, R. M. (1997). The knowledge-based view of the firm: Implications for management practice. Long Range Planning, 30(3), 450–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hislop, D. (2005). Knowledge management in organizations. A critical introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Jashapara, A. (2011). Knowledge management: An integrated approach (2nd ed.). London: Financial Times/Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  31. Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.Google Scholar
  32. Klein, G. (2014). The power of intuition: How to use your gut feelings to make better decisions at work. New York: Currency Doubleday.Google Scholar
  33. Knight, F. H. (1921). Risk, uncertainty and profit. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  34. Kodama, M. (2011). Knowledge integration dynamic: Developing strategic innovation capability. Singapore: World Scientific.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Leydesdorff, L. (2006). The knowledge-based economy and the triple helix model. In W. Dolfsma & L. Soete (Eds.), Understanding the dynamics of a knowledge economy (pp. 42–76). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  36. Machlup, F. (1962). Production and distribution of knowledge in the United States. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Mahler, J. G., & Casamayou, M. H. (2009). Organizational learning at NASA: The challenger and Columbia accidents. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Nickerson, J. A., & Zenger, T. R. (2004). A knowledge-based theory of the firm: The problem-solving perspective. Organization Science, 15(6), 617–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nonaka, I. (1994). A dynamic theory of organizational knowledge creation. Organization Science, 5(1), 14–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nonaka, I., & Takeuchi, H. (1995). The knowledge-creating company: How Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Nonaka, I., & Zhu, Z. (2012). Pragmatic strategy: Eastern wisdom, global success. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nonaka, I., Toyama, R., & Hirata, T. (2008). Managing flow: A process theory of the knowledge-based firm. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. North, K., & Gueldenberg, S. (2011). Effective knowledge work: Answers to the management challenges of the 21st century. Bingley: Emerald.Google Scholar
  44. O’Dell, C., & Hubert, C. (2011). The new edge in knowledge: How knowledge management is changing the way we do business. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  45. Örtenblad, A. (2011). Making sense of the learning organization: What is it and who needs it? Kuala Lumpur: YayasanIlmuwan.Google Scholar
  46. Penrose, E. T. (2013). The theory of the growth of the firm. Mansfield Centre: Martino Publishing.Google Scholar
  47. Powell, W. W., & Snellman, K. (2004). The knowledge economy. Annual Review of Sociology, 30, 199–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rother, M. (2010). Toyota kata: Managing people for improvement, adaptiveness, and superior results. New York: McGrawHill.Google Scholar
  49. Ryle, G. (1949). The concept of mind. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  50. Sanchez, J. H., Sanchez, Y. H., Collado-Tuiz, D., & Cebrian-Tarrason, D. (2013). Knowledge creating and sharing corporate culture framework. Procedia: Social and Behavioral Sciences, 74, 388–397.Google Scholar
  51. Scarbrough, H., & Swan, J. (2001). Explaining the diffusion of knowledge management. British Journal of Management, 12, 3–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Senge, P. (1999). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. London: Random house.Google Scholar
  53. Simon, H. A. (1976). Administrative behavior (3rd ed.). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  54. Simon, H. A. (1991). Bounded rationality and organizational learning. Organization Science, 2, 125–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Spender, J. C. (1996). Making knowledge the basis of a dynamic theory of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 17(Winter), 45–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Spender, J. C. (2014). Business strategy: Managing uncertainty, opportunity, and enterprise. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Spender, J. C. (2015a). Knowledge management: Origins, history, and development. In E. Bolisani & M. Handzic (Eds.), Advances in knowledge management: Celebrating twenty years of research and practice (pp. 3–25). Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  58. Spender, J. C. (2015b). The theory of the managed firm (TMF). Human Systems Management, 34(1), 57–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Stewart, D. (2001). Reinterpreting the learning organization. The Learning Organization, 8(4), 141–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sveiby, K. E. (1997). The new organizational wealth – managing and measuring knowledge-based assets. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.Google Scholar
  61. Sveiby, K. E. (2001). A knowledge-based theory of the firm to guide in strategy formulation. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 2(4), 344–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Szulanski, G. (1995). Unpacking stickiness: An empirical investigation of the barriers to transfer best practices inside the firm. Academy of Management Proceedings, 38, 437–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Szulanski, G. (1996). Exploring internal stickiness: Impediments to the transfer of best practice within the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 17(Winter), 27–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Taylor, F. W. (1998). The principles of scientific management. New York: Dover Publications.Google Scholar
  65. Teece, D. J. (2009). Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Organizing for innovation and growth. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  66. Teece, D. J., Pissano, G., & Shuen, A. (1997). Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 18(7), 509–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tsoukas, H. (1996). The firm as a distributed knowledge system: A constructionist approach. Strategic Management Journal, 17(Winter), 11–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Von Krogh, G., Ichijo, K., & Nonaka, I. (2000). Enabling knowledge creation: How to unlock the mystery of tacit knowledge and release the power of information. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wellman, J. L. (2009). Organizational learning: How companies and institutions manage and apply knowledge. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. World Bank Institute. (2008). Measuring knowledge in the world’s economies: Knowledge assessment methodology and knowledge economy index. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  71. Zohar, D., & Marshall, I. (2004). Spiritual capital: Wealth we can live by. San Francisco: Berret-Koehler Publishers.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Management and EngineeringUniversity of PaduaVicenzaItaly
  2. 2.Faculty of Business AdministrationBucharest University of Economic StudiesBucharestRomania

Personalised recommendations