Case Studies of Trade Problems Related to MRLs

  • May T. Yeung
  • William A. Kerr
  • Blair Coomber
  • Matthew Lantz
  • Alyse McConnell
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Agricultural Economics and Food Policy book series (AEFP)


A number of case studies that provide deeper insights into the effects of asynchronous regulatory regimes for MRLs are presented. Cases include: Philippine banana exports to South Korea; imports of tree nuts into the EU; cocoa exports from Ghana; North American cranberries destined for the EU; cherry imports into Taiwan; and global avocado trade, among others.


Regime revision Generic products WTO notification Extension Default tolerance Zero tolerance Violations Import tolerance Authorized Methodology Inspection Testing Unauthorized substance Rejection Positive list 


  1. AAFC. (n.d.). ‘Canadian Cranberries’, Agriculture and Agrifood Canada, Ottawa. Accessed 6 Mar 2016.
  2. Agri-view. 2015. Cranberry Exports Impacted by EU Decision, Jan 29. Accessed 6 Mar 2016.
  3. Arcalas, J. 2016. S. Korea retains rules on PHL banana exports. Business Mirror, December 4. Accessed 8 Feb 2017.
  4. AsiaFruit. 2013. Bananas Rank Top in Korea, July 10. Accessed 3 Mar 2016.
  5. Bryant Christie. 2016. Implementation of Korea PLS Phase One—January 1, 2017, December 16. Accessed 8 Feb 2017.
  6. Business Mirror. 2015. Korean Rules on Pesticide Residue Threaten Banana Exports, Feb 22. Accessed 3 Mar 2016.
  7. California Walnut Commission. 2014. EU Changes Definition of Phosphite Residues, Dec 30. Accessed 4 Mar 2016.
  8. Center for Turfgrass Science. (n.d.). ‘Fact Sheet, Phosphonate Products’, College of Agricultural Sciences, Pennsylvania State University: University Park. Accessed 4 March 2016.
  9. Codex. (n.d.). Pesticides Residues in Food Database, Rome. Accessed 3 June 2016.
  10. Diega, A.S. 2015. DA asks South Korea to Extend Start of Stiffer Pesticide Protocol on PHL Bananas. Business Mirror, August 6. Accessed 3 Mar 2016.
  11. EFSA. 2015a. Reasoned Opinion on the Modification of the Existing MRL for Thiram in Avocados. EFSA Journal, January.
  12. EFSA. 2015b. Setting of an Import Tolerance for Chlorothalonil in Cranberries, European Food Safety Authority, Brussels, July 2.
  13. EPA. 2004. RED Facts—Thiram, Reregistration Eligibility Decision Document, Environmental Protection Agency, September. Accessed 12 Feb 2017.
  14. Essegbey, G., and E. Ofori-Gyamfi. 2012. Ghana Cocoa Industry—An Analysis from the Innovation System Perspective. Technology and Investment, 3: 276–286.
  15. Fresh Plaza. 2013. Avocado Market Still Growing, Holland Plays a Big Role in It, June 13. Accessed 9 Apr 2016.
  16. Government of Australia. 2015. Failing Food Report—December 2015, Department of Agriculture and Water Resources.–monitoring-of-food-for-compliance. Accessed 6 Mar 2016.
  17. Government of Australia. (n.d.). Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code—Schedule 20—Maximum residue limits. Federal Register of Legislation. Accessed 6 Mar 2016.
  18. Government of Japan. (n.d.a). Recent Cases of Violation of the Food Sanitation Law that were Found on the Occasion of Import Notification. // Accessed 8 Mar 2016.
  19. Government of Japan. (n.d.b). Positive List System for Agricultural Chemical Residues in Foods. Accessed 25 June 2016.
  20. Government of Taiwan. (n.d.). ‘Imported food violations’, Food and Drug Administration. Accessed 28 Mar 2016.
  21. Government of the United States. 2015. Thiram; Pesticide Tolerance, A Rule by the EPA on 06/19/205, US Federal Register, Washington.
  22. Jonfia-Essien, W.A. 2012. Emerging International Standards in Cocoa Trade: Recent Treatise on MRL. In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products, eds. H.J. Banks, D.S. Jayas, C.H. Bell, R.T. Noyes, A.G. Ferizli, M. Emekci, A.A. Isikber and K. Alagusundaram, Oct 15–19, 136–143, Antalya.
  23. Lantz, M. 2010. Pacific Rim MRL Issues. Presentation to California Special Crops Council International MRL and SPS Issues Workshop, June 2.
  24. Lantz, M. 2016. The Coming MRL Challenge in Korea. Seattle: Bryant Christie Inc., March.
  25. New Zealand Food Safety Authority. 2016. Pesticide MRL Database. Wellington: Government of New Zealand.
  26. Northwest Horticultural Council. 2016. Taiwan Cherries: Increased Residue Testing, March 10, Country Alerts. Accessed 7 Mar 2016.
  27. Ritenour, M.A. 2016. 2016 Florida Citrus Pest Management Guide: Ch. 3 Fresh Fruit Pesticide Residue Limits. University of Florida IFAS Extension, Publication #HS-1124.
  28. Scott, J. 2016. Foreign Agricultural Service’s Role in Addressing Trade-Related MRL Issues. USDA presentation to US Specialty Crops.
  29. SGS. 2015. US EPA Revises MRL for Thiram in Avocadoes, June 30. Accessed 9 Apr 2016.
  30. USDA. 2012. US Specialty Crops Trade Issues 2012. In Annual Report to Congress. Washingon: United States Department of Agriculture.
  31. USDA. 2016. ‘Chlorothalonil MRL on Cranberries at 5 ppm Again’, US Mission to the EU, Foreign Agricultural Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Brussels. Accessed 6 Mar 2016.
  32. USDA. (n.d.). Global Agriculture Trade Statistics, Foreign Agricultural Service.Google Scholar
  33. Vandercammen, G. 2016. New EU MRL for Fosetyl Takes Effect. USDA FAS GAIN Report E16001, Washington, Jan 4.
  34. Wilson, J. 2015. Horticultural Research and Regulatory Activities. The Cranberry Institute presentation to the BC Cranberry Congress, Feb.
  35. Xie, C. 2015. Four Billion Dollar Worth of Pesticides to Come Off Patent in 5 Years. Agronews, March 12.—14166.htm. Accessed 3 June 2016.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • May T. Yeung
    • 1
  • William A. Kerr
    • 2
  • Blair Coomber
    • 3
  • Matthew Lantz
    • 4
  • Alyse McConnell
    • 5
  1. 1.Johnson Shoyama Graduate School of Public PolicyUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural and Resource EconomicsUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada
  3. 3.OttawaCanada
  4. 4.Bryant Christie Inc.SeattleUSA
  5. 5.Bryant Christie Inc.SacramentoUSA

Personalised recommendations