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Removal of Fluoride from Ground Water by Adsorption Using Industrial Solid Waste (Fly Ash)


The fluoride removal ability of industrial waste (fly ash) from ground water was studied at different concentrations, contact times, reaction temperatures, adsorbent dosage, coexisting anions and pH of the solution. The rate constants of adsorption, intraparticle transport, mass transfer coefficients and thermodynamic parameters have been calculated at 303 K, 313 K and 323 K. The empirical model has been tested at various concentrations for the present system. The removal of fluoride is favourable at low concentration (5 ppm), high temperature (313 K) and under highly acidic conditions. The batch adsorption process fitted well the Langmuir isotherm and the adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order rate equation. The physicochemical properties of fly ash were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy.


  • Fluoride
  • Ground water
  • Fly ash
  • Adsorption
  • pH

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  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-60408-4_6
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Fig. 6.1
Fig. 6.2
Fig. 6.3
Fig. 6.4
Fig. 6.5
Fig. 6.6


a1 :

Elovich constant which gives an idea of the reaction rate constant (mg/g/min)


Langmuir constant (L/mg)

b1 :

Elovich constant and represents the rate of chemisorption at zero coverage (g/mg)

bT :

Temkin constant


Intra-particle diffusion constant

Ca :

Amount of F (mg) adsorbed on the adsorbent per liter of the solution at equilibrium

Cabs :

Amount of F ion adsorbed onto sorbent surface (mol/g)

Ce :

F ion concentration in solution at equilibrium (mg/L)

C0 :

Initial F ion concentration (mg/L)

Ct :

F ion concentration at time t (mg/L)

De :

Effective diffusion coefficient of adsorbates in the sorbent phase (m2/s)


Mean sorption energy (kJ/mol)


Gibbs free energy (kJ/mol)


Enthalpy (kJ/mol)

K1 :

Pseudo first-order rate constant (min−1)

K2 :

Pseudo second-order rate constant (mg/g/min)

Ki :

Intra-particle rate constant (mg/g/min1/2)

Kbq :

The constant obtained by multiplying qmax and b

Ko c :

Thermodynamic equilibrium constant

\( {\mathrm{K}}_{\mathrm{c}}^{/} \) :

Apparent equilibrium constant

KT :

Temkin isotherm constant


Mass of the sorbent per unit volume (g/L)

Kf :

Freundlich constants, intensity of sorption (mg/g)/(mg/L)1/n


An integer

qe :

Amount adsorbed per gram of the sorbent at equilibrium (mg/g)

qmax :

Maximum sorption capacity (mg/g)

qt :

Amount adsorbed per gram of sorbent at any time t (mg/g)

qα :

Amount adsorbed per gram of sorbent at infinite time (mg/g)

qtm :

Amount adsorbed per gram of adsorbent from model (mg/g)

r2 :

Correlation coefficient


Ideal gas constant (J/mole/K)

RL :

Separation factor

Ra :

Radius of the sorbent particle (m)

SS :

External surface area of the sorbent per unit volume (m−1)


Entropy [kJ/(mole K)]


Time (min)


Temperature (K)

t0 :

Elovich constant equals to 1/(a1·b1)


Volume (mL)


Amount of sorbent (g)

Xm :

Maximum sorption capacity of sorbent (mmole/g)


Mass transfer coefficient (cm/s)


Constant related to sorption energy (mol2/kJ2)


Polanyi potential (kJ2/mol2)

χ2 :

Chi-square value

\( {\chi}^2=\sum \frac{{\left({q}_t-{q}_{tm}\right)}^2}{q_{tm}} \)


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Chakraborty, G.M., Das, S.K., Mandal, S.N. (2018). Removal of Fluoride from Ground Water by Adsorption Using Industrial Solid Waste (Fly Ash). In: Ramasami, P., Gupta Bhowon, M., Jhaumeer Laulloo, S., Li Kam Wah, H. (eds) Emerging Trends in Chemical Sciences. ICPAC 2016. Springer, Cham.

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