Skip to main content

Offshore Oil and Gas Production and Transportation

Abstract

An analysis of sources and factors of environmental risk at the various phases of the offshore oil and gas industry (OOGI) is presented. Practically all operations of the OOGI are shown to be accompanied by physical, chemical and biological disturbances in marine ecosystems. The level of impacts, their scale as well as negative ecological effects vary widely depending on local situations and conditions. Environmental impacts of drilling operations as well as platform and pipeline construction in the sea usually result in local and reversible disturbances in the water columns and benthic communities. The most significant sources and factors of ecological risk associated with the OOGI’s activities include accidental oil spills in the coastal zone, operations with tanker ballast waters resulting in introduction of alien species, discharge of produced waters and seismic exploration. Such impacts could produce not only disturbances to local biota but could also lead to ecological catastrophes at a regional level. The most serious economic losses of fisheries result from the restrictions imposed on fishing and mariculture following oil spills in coastal areas.

Keywords

  • Offshore oil and gas industry
  • Ecological risk
  • Marine ecosystems
  • Environmental impact
  • Seismic surveys
  • Drilling operations
  • Produced water
  • Tanker oil transportation
  • Offshore pipeline transportation
  • Ballast water
  • Invasion of alien species
  • Oil spills
  • Impact on fisheries

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 8.1
Fig. 8.2
Fig. 8.3

References

  • AMAP (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme) (2010) Oil and gas activities in the Arctic. Effects and potential effects. AMAP, Oslo, Norway

    Google Scholar 

  • Dalen J (2007) Effects of seismic surveys on fish, fish catches and sea mammals. Report for the Cooperation group. Fishery Industry and Petroleum Industry Report no. 2007–0512

    Google Scholar 

  • ExxonMobil (2015) Coexisting with the fishing industry. Esso Norge as an ExxonMobil Subsidiary. http://www.exxonmobil.no

  • Fraser GS, Russell J, Von Zharen WM (2006) Produced water from offshore oil and gas installations on the grand banks, Newfoundland and Labrador: are the potential effects to seabirds sufficiently known? Mar Ornithol 34:147–156

    Google Scholar 

  • Gautier DL, Bird KJ, Charpentier RR et al (2009) Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas in the Arctic. Science 324:1175–1179

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • GESAMP (UN Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection) (2007) Estimates of oil entering the marine environment from sea-based activities, GESAMP reports and studies, 75

    Google Scholar 

  • IAOGP (International Association of Oil and Gas Producers) (2013) Environmental performance indicators 2012 data, report 2012

    Google Scholar 

  • IFAW (International Fund for Animal Welfare) (2008) Ocean noise: turn it down. A report on ocean noise pollution. IFAW

    Google Scholar 

  • IPIECA (International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (2010) Alien invasive species and the oil and gas industry. IPIECA, London

    Google Scholar 

  • IPIECA (International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association) (2003) Biological impacts of oil pollution: fisheries. IPIECA, London

    Google Scholar 

  • ITOPF (International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation) (2010) Oil spill statistics (1970–2009). ITOPF, London

    Google Scholar 

  • IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) (2008) Western gray whales: status, threats and the potential for recovery. IUCN, Tokyo

    Google Scholar 

  • IWC (International Whaling Commission) (2006) Features of sound and seismic surveys. Report of the Scientific Committee. Report of the Standing Working Group on Environmental Concerns. IWC, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Kaiser MJ, Pulsipher AG (2005) Rigs-to-reefs programs in the Gulf of Mexico. Ocean Dev Int rnational Law 36:119–134

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Karlsen HE, Piddington RW, Enger PS, Sand O (2004) Infrasound initiates directional fast-start escape responses in juvenile roach Rutilus rutilus. J Exp Biol 207:4185–4193

    Google Scholar 

  • NAS (National Academy of Sciences) (2003) Oil in the sea: III. Inputs, fates, and effects. National Academies Press, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Nieukirk SL, Stafford KM, Mellinger DK, Dziak RP, Fox CG (2004) Low-frequency whale and seismic airgun sounds recorded in the mid-Atlantic Ocean. J Acoust Soc Am 115:1832–1843

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • OSPAR (Oslo and Paris Convention) (2010) Quality status report 2010 for the North East Atlantic. OSPAR Commission, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Patin SA (1999) Environmental impact of the offshore oil and gas industry. EcoMonitor Publ., New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Patin SA (2001) Oil and continental shelf ecology. VNIRO Publishing, Moscow. (Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  • Patin SA (2004) Environmental impact of crude oil spills. In: Encyclopedia of energy, vol 1. Elsevier Science, New York, pp 737–750

    Google Scholar 

  • Patin SA (2008) Oil spills in the sea and their impact on the marine environment and living resources. VNIRO Publishing, Moscow. (Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  • Raaymakers S (2003) Maritime transport and high seas governance – regulation, risks and the IMO regime. Paper presented at international workshop on governance of high seas biodiversity conservation, Cairns, Australia

    Google Scholar 

  • RCN (Research Council of Norway) (2012) Long-term effects of discharges to sea from petroleum-related activities. The results of ten years, research. RCN, Oslo

    Google Scholar 

  • UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) (2006) Illegal oil discharge in European Seas, Environment Alert Bulletin, 7

    Google Scholar 

  • WWF-Norway (World Wild Fund, Norway) (2009) Petroleum-free zones in the Norwegian Sea. WWF-Norway, Oslo

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Stanislav Patin .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2018 Springer International Publishing AG

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Patin, S. (2018). Offshore Oil and Gas Production and Transportation. In: Salomon, M., Markus, T. (eds) Handbook on Marine Environment Protection . Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-60156-4_8

Download citation