Getting Frustrated: Modelling Emotional Contagion in Stranded Passengers

  • C. Natalie van der WalEmail author
  • Maik Couwenberg
  • Tibor Bosse
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10350)


Train passengers can get stranded due to a variety of events, such as a delay, technical malfunctioning or a natural disaster. Stranded passengers can get frustrated, which could escalate in misbehaviours. Examples are verbal and physical violence or dangerous behaviours such as opening emergency exits and walking in unauthorized areas. In this work, an agent-based model of stranded passengers was created to analyse and predict the dynamics of frustration and misbehaviours. It was determined how age, gender, emotional contagion, social identity and traveller type influence the frustration dynamics and number of misbehaviours. Important findings are that emotional contagion, age and gender can have an amplifying effect on frustration and misbehaviours, while traveller type seemed to have no influence. This model can be used by transport operators in preparing for stranded passengers scenarios.


Crowd Emotional contagion Frustration Passengers 



This research was undertaken as part of EU H2020 IMPACT GA 653383. We thank our Consortium Partners and stakeholders for their input.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Natalie van der Wal
    • 1
    Email author
  • Maik Couwenberg
    • 1
  • Tibor Bosse
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceVrije Universiteit AmsterdamAmsterdamNetherlands

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