Clinical Features of Colorectal Cancer

  • Marcin Włodarczyk
  • Aleksandra Sobolewska-Włodarczyk
Chapter

Abstract

Most colorectal cancer (CRC) patients are symptomatic at time of diagnosis, what is associated with more advanced stage and poorer clinical outcomes. CRC may be diagnosed after the onset of symptoms or through screening colonoscopy or fecal occult blood testing in the majority of patients. Screening of asymptomatic individuals for CRC is advocated by major societies and preventive care organizations. However, while compliance with CRC screening guidelines is steadily improving, it is still relatively low.

Keywords

Colorectal cancer Clinical diagnosis Clinical symptoms Clinical features 

Abbreviations

AJCC

American Joint Committee on Cancer

CRC

Colorectal cancer

CT

Computed tomography

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

UICC

Union for International Cancer Control

References

  1. 1.
    Dozois EJ, Boardman LA, Suwanthanma W, Limburg PJ, Cima RR, Bakken JL, et al. Young-onset colorectal cancer in patients with no known genetic predisposition: can we increase early recognition and improve outcome? Medicine (Baltimore). 2008;87(5):259–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Speights VO, Johnson MW, Stoltenberg PH, Rappaport ES, Helbert B, Riggs M. Colorectal cancer: current trends in initial clinical manifestations. South Med J. 1991;84(5):575–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Steinberg SM, Barkin JS, Kaplan RS, Stablein DM. Prognostic indicators of colon tumors. The gastrointestinal tumor study group experience. Cancer. 1986;57(9):1866–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ford AC, van Zanten SJOV, Rodgers CC, Talley NJ, Vakil NB, Moayyedi P. Diagnostic utility of alarm features for colorectal cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. Gut. 2008 Nov;57(11):1545–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Adelstein B-A, Macaskill P, Chan SF, Katelaris PH, Irwig L. Most bowel cancer symptoms do not indicate colorectal cancer and polyps: a systematic review. BMC Gastroenterol. 2011;11(1):65.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Panwalker AP. Unusual infections associated with colorectal cancer. Rev Infect Dis. 1988;10(2):347–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Siegel R, Ward E, Brawley O, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2011: the impact of eliminating socioeconomic and racial disparities on premature cancer deaths. CA Cancer J Clin. 2011;61(4):212–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chen VW, Hsieh M-C, Charlton ME, Ruiz BA, Karlitz J, Altekruse SF, et al. Analysis of stage and clinical/prognostic factors for colon and rectal cancer from SEER registries: AJCC and collaborative stage data collection system. Cancer. 2014;120(Suppl 23):3793–806.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ueno H, Mochizuki H, Hashiguchi Y, Ishiguro M, Kajiwara Y, Sato T, et al. Histological grading of colorectal cancer: a simple and objective method. Ann Surg. 2008;247(5):811–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcin Włodarczyk
    • 1
    • 2
  • Aleksandra Sobolewska-Włodarczyk
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of MedicineMedical University of LodzLodzPoland
  2. 2.Department of General and Colorectal Surgery, Faculty of Military MedicineMedical University of LodzLodzPoland
  3. 3.Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Military MedicineMedical University of LodzLodzPoland

Personalised recommendations