Risk Factors in Colorectal Cancer

  • Damian Jacenik
  • Adam I. Cygankiewicz
  • Wanda M. Krajewska
Chapter

Abstract

The prevalence of colorectal cancer constantly increases over the past few decades. Approximately 85% of colorectal cancers are sporadic, without family, or genetic predisposition. An accumulating evidence indicates that genetic and several lifestyle factors including diet, smoking, obesity, or inflammatory bowel disease are involved in the development of colorectal cancer.

Keywords

Colorectal cancer Risk factors Family history Lifestyle Diet Smoking Alcohol Obesity Insulin Inflammatory bowel disease Microbiota Viral pathogens Night-shift work 

Abbreviations

5’AMPK

5’Adenosinemonophosphate-activated protein kinase

AEEC

Attaching and effacing Escherichia coli

AKT/PKB

Ak strain transforming murine thymoma viral oncogene/protein kinase B

APC

Adenomatous polyposis coli

BCL-2

B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2

BER

Base-excision repair

BMI

Body mass index

BMPR1A

Bone morphogenetic protein type 1A

BRAF

v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homologue B

BRRS

Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome

CagA

Cytotoxin-associated gene A

CD

Crohn’s disease

COX-2

Cyclooxygenase-2

CRC

Colorectal cancer

CRP

C-reactive protein

CS

Cowed syndrome

ENG

Endoglin

EPCAM

Epithelial cell adhesion molecule

EPEC

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

ERK1/ERK2

Extracellular signal-related kinases 1/2

FAP

Familial adenomatous polyposis

FOS

Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins murine osteosarcoma

GREM1

Gremlin 1

HCA

Heterocyclic amines

HMPS

Hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome

HNPCC

Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

HPS

Hamartomatous polyposis syndrome

HPV

Human papillomaviruses

IBD

Inflammatory bowel disease

IGF

Insulin-like growth factor

IL

Interleukin

IR

Insulin receptor

JAK

Janus kinase

JC

John Cunningham virus

JPS

Juvenile polyposis syndrome

JUN

Junana (17)

KRAS

Kirsten rat sarcoma 2 viral oncogene homologue

LKB1

Liver kinase B1

MAP

MUTYH-associated polyposis

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

MCP-1

Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1

MLH

MutL homologue

MMR

Mismatch repair

MSH

MutS homologue

mTOR

Mechanistic target of rapamycin/mammalian target of rapamycin

MUTYH

MutY homologue

MYC

Avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homologue

NFκB

Nuclear factor κB/v-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homologue A

NOC

N-nitroso compounds

NSAID

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

PAI-1

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

PI3K

Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase

PJS

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome

PMS2

PMS1 homologue 2

POLD1

DNA polymerase δ

POLE

DNA polymerase ε

POLE/POLD/PPAP

Polymerase proofreading-associated polyposis

PS

PTEN-related Proteus syndrome

PTEN

Phosphatase and tensin homologue

RAF

Virus-induced rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma

RB

Retinoblastoma

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SCG5

Secretogranin 5

SMAD3/SMAD4

Mothers against decapentaplegic homologue 3/4

SPS

Serrated polyposis syndrome

STAT

Signal transducer and activator of transcription

STK11

Serine/threonine kinase 11

SV40

Simian virus 40

TGFβ

Transforming growth factor β

TNFα

Tumor necrosis factor α

TP53

Tumor protein p53/tumor suppressor p53

UC

Ulcerative colitis

VacA

Vacuolating cytotoxin A

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

Wnt

Wingless-related integration site

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by grant (2015/17/N/NZ5/00336 to DJ) from the National Science Centre, Poland.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Damian Jacenik
    • 1
  • Adam I. Cygankiewicz
    • 1
  • Wanda M. Krajewska
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cytobiochemistry, Faculty of Biology and Environmental ProtectionUniversity of LodzLodzPoland

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