Risk Factors in Colorectal Cancer

  • Damian Jacenik
  • Adam I. Cygankiewicz
  • Wanda M. Krajewska


The prevalence of colorectal cancer constantly increases over the past few decades. Approximately 85% of colorectal cancers are sporadic, without family, or genetic predisposition. An accumulating evidence indicates that genetic and several lifestyle factors including diet, smoking, obesity, or inflammatory bowel disease are involved in the development of colorectal cancer.


Colorectal cancer Risk factors Family history Lifestyle Diet Smoking Alcohol Obesity Insulin Inflammatory bowel disease Microbiota Viral pathogens Night-shift work 



5’Adenosinemonophosphate-activated protein kinase


Attaching and effacing Escherichia coli


Ak strain transforming murine thymoma viral oncogene/protein kinase B


Adenomatous polyposis coli


B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2


Base-excision repair


Body mass index


Bone morphogenetic protein type 1A


v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homologue B


Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome


Cytotoxin-associated gene A


Crohn’s disease




Colorectal cancer


C-reactive protein


Cowed syndrome




Epithelial cell adhesion molecule


Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli


Extracellular signal-related kinases 1/2


Familial adenomatous polyposis


Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins murine osteosarcoma


Gremlin 1


Heterocyclic amines


Hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome


Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer


Hamartomatous polyposis syndrome


Human papillomaviruses


Inflammatory bowel disease


Insulin-like growth factor




Insulin receptor


Janus kinase


John Cunningham virus


Juvenile polyposis syndrome


Junana (17)


Kirsten rat sarcoma 2 viral oncogene homologue


Liver kinase B1


MUTYH-associated polyposis


Mitogen-activated protein kinase


Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1


MutL homologue


Mismatch repair


MutS homologue


Mechanistic target of rapamycin/mammalian target of rapamycin


MutY homologue


Avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homologue


Nuclear factor κB/v-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homologue A


N-nitroso compounds


Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs


Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1


Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase


Peutz-Jeghers syndrome


PMS1 homologue 2


DNA polymerase δ


DNA polymerase ε


Polymerase proofreading-associated polyposis


PTEN-related Proteus syndrome


Phosphatase and tensin homologue


Virus-induced rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma




Reactive oxygen species


Secretogranin 5


Mothers against decapentaplegic homologue 3/4


Serrated polyposis syndrome


Signal transducer and activator of transcription


Serine/threonine kinase 11


Simian virus 40


Transforming growth factor β


Tumor necrosis factor α


Tumor protein p53/tumor suppressor p53


Ulcerative colitis


Vacuolating cytotoxin A


Vascular endothelial growth factor


Wingless-related integration site



This work was supported by grant (2015/17/N/NZ5/00336 to DJ) from the National Science Centre, Poland.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Damian Jacenik
    • 1
  • Adam I. Cygankiewicz
    • 1
  • Wanda M. Krajewska
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cytobiochemistry, Faculty of Biology and Environmental ProtectionUniversity of LodzLodzPoland

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