Quantum Algorithms for Computing Short Discrete Logarithms and Factoring RSA Integers
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We generalize the quantum algorithm for computing short discrete logarithms previously introduced by Ekerå  so as to allow for various tradeoffs between the number of times that the algorithm need be executed on the one hand, and the complexity of the algorithm and the requirements it imposes on the quantum computer on the other hand. Furthermore, we describe applications of algorithms for computing short discrete logarithms. In particular, we show how other important problems such as those of factoring RSA integers and of finding the order of groups under side information may be recast as short discrete logarithm problems. This gives rise to an algorithm for factoring RSA integers that is less complex than Shor’s general factoring algorithm in the sense that it imposes smaller requirements on the quantum computer. In both our algorithm and Shor’s algorithm, the main hurdle is to compute a modular exponentiation in superposition. When factoring an n bit integer, the exponent is of length 2n bits in Shor’s algorithm, compared to slightly more than n/2 bits in our algorithm.
KeywordsDiscrete logarithms Factoring RSA Shor’s algorithms
Support for this work was provided by the Swedish NCSA, that is a part of the Swedish Armed Forces, and by the Swedish Research Council (VR). We are grateful to Lennart Brynielsson for many interesting discussions on the topic of this paper. The input of the referees and of Rainer Steinwandt was also helpful.
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