Advertisement

Where Did It All Go Wrong?

  • Richard FloydEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

My final concern is the question of why, if I am right, the reificatory approach is so popular. I begin with a brief survey of the history of the concept of mind and the concept of a mental state. Arguing that there is a long standing tendency to reify both the mind and mental things, but that the emergence of the now mainstream concept of a reified token mental state is a very recent phenomenon, and appears to be largely accidental. A large part of explanation of both the reificatory tradition and the sudden emergence of the mental state is the influence of language and in particular of deep-rooted conceptual metaphors which mean that our pretheoretical notions of mind and of mental things are reificatory in character.

Keywords

Philosophy of mind Psychology History of philosophy History of psychology Conceptual metaphor Metaphor Wittgenstein Ryle Turing Putnam 

Bibliography

  1. Aristotle, De Anima, transl. Hicks, R. D. (Cambridge University Press, 1907).Google Scholar
  2. Aristotle, Nichomachean Ethics, transl. Irwin, Terence (Hackett, 1999).Google Scholar
  3. Armstrong, David, A Materialist Theory of the Mind (Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1968).Google Scholar
  4. Berkeley, George, Of the Principles of Human Knowledge (Oxford University Press, 1999).Google Scholar
  5. Dennett, Daniel, Consciousness Explained (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1991).Google Scholar
  6. Descartes, Rene, Philosophical Writings, transl. Norman Kemp Smith, (London: Macmillan, 1952).Google Scholar
  7. Dretske, Fred, “Where is the Mind?” in Meijers, Anthonie ed. Explaining Beliefs: Lynne Rudder Baker and her Critics (CSLI 2001), p. 42.Google Scholar
  8. Feigl, Herbert, The “Mental” and the “Physical”: The Essay and a Postscript (University of Minnesota Press, 1967).Google Scholar
  9. Fodor, Jerry, ‘The Mind-Body Problem’. Scientific American, 244 (Jan. 1981), 124–132.Google Scholar
  10. Goldman, Alvin, “The Psychology of Folk Psychology,” The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, vol. 16 (1993), 15–28.Google Scholar
  11. Hartley, David, Theory of the Human Mind (AMS Press, 1973).Google Scholar
  12. Hebb, D. O., A Textbook of Psychology (Saunders, 1958).Google Scholar
  13. Hobbes, Thomas, The English works of Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury; Now First Collected and Edited by Sir William Molesworth, Bart. (Scientia, 1962).Google Scholar
  14. Hobbes, Thomas, Leviathan (Penguin, 1968).Google Scholar
  15. Hobbes, Thomas, Human Nature and De Corpore Politico (Oxford University Press, 1999).Google Scholar
  16. Hume, David, A Treatise of Human Nature (Clarendon Press, 1896).Google Scholar
  17. Kenny, Anthony, Descartes: A Study of his Philosophy (Random House 1968).Google Scholar
  18. Kovecses, Zoltan, Metaphor: A Practical Introduction (Oxford University Press, 2002).Google Scholar
  19. Lakoff, George and Johnson, Mark, Metaphors We Live By (University of Chicago Press, 1980).Google Scholar
  20. Lewis, David K., “An Argument for the Identity Theory” The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 63, No. 1 (Jan. 6, 1966), 17–25.Google Scholar
  21. Lewis David K., “Psychophysical and Theoretical Identifications”, Australasian Journal of Philosophy, 50 (1972), 249–258; reprinted in Block (ed.), Readings in Philosophy of Psychology, i., pp. 207–15.Google Scholar
  22. Locke, John, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Google Scholar
  23. Lorenz, Hendrik, “Ancient Theories of Soul” in Zalta, Edward N. ed. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, First published Thu Oct 23, 2003; substantive revision Wed Apr 22, 2009, http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ancient-soul/.
  24. MacDonald, Paul, S., History of the Concept of Mind: Speculations about Soul, Mind and Spirit from Homer to Hume (Ashgate, 2003).Google Scholar
  25. Moore, G. E., “The Subject-Matter of Psychology”, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, New Series, Vol. 10, (1909–1910).Google Scholar
  26. Place, U. T., “Is Consciousness a Brain Process?”, British Journal of Psychology, 47 (1956), 44–50.Google Scholar
  27. Plato, Phaedo, transl. Tredennick, Hugh (Penguin, 1969).Google Scholar
  28. Plato, Republic, transl. Shorey, Paul (William Heinemann, 1969).Google Scholar
  29. Putnam, Hilary, “Minds and Machines”, Dimensions of Mind: A Symposium, Sidney Hook, ed. (New York University Press, 1960), reprinted in Anderson, Alan Ross, Minds and Machines (Prentice-Hall, 1964).Google Scholar
  30. Putnam, Hilary, “Psychological Predicates”, in W. H. Capitan and D. D. Merrill, eds., Art, Mind, and Religion (University of Pittsburgh Press, 1967).Google Scholar
  31. Reddy, Michael, The Conduit Metaphor, in Metaphor and Thought, ed. Andrew Ortony (Cambridge University Press, 1979).Google Scholar
  32. Ryle, Gilbert, The Concept of Mind (Hutchinson, 1949).Google Scholar
  33. Ryle, Gilbert, Collected Papers, Vol. II (Hutchinson, 1971).Google Scholar
  34. Shannon, C. E., “A Mathematical Theory of Communication” (1949) at http://hq.sk/~mandos/fmfi-uk/Informatika/Uvod%20Do%20Umelej%20Inteligencie/clanky/shannon1.pdf.
  35. Smart, J. J. C., “Sensations and Brain Processes”, Philosophical Review, vol.68 (1959).Google Scholar
  36. Spinoza, Benedict, The Ethics, repr. in G. N. A. Vesey ed. Body and Mind (George Allen and Unwin, 1964).Google Scholar
  37. Turing, Alan, “Computing Machinery and Intelligence”, Mind, Vol. LIX, No. 236, (1950), reprinted in Anderson, Alan Ross, Minds and Machines (Prentice-Hall, 1964).Google Scholar
  38. Wittgenstein, Ludwig, Philosophical Investigations (Blackwell, 1953, reprinted 2004).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of LancasterLancasterUK

Personalised recommendations