Gender Differences in Paid and Unpaid Work
Wheatley, Lawton and Hardill evidence the gendered nature of patterns of paid and unpaid work in advanced societies from a life-course perspective, using data from the UK. Despite a whole raft of social legislation, labour market participation remains highly gendered. Patterns of paid work have become increasingly diverse and flexible with a growth in precarious and gig work, especially among younger and older adults. While overall participation in paid work may be converging among men and women, most men still engage in full-time employment (or self-employment) for the majority of the life course, while over 40% of women report part-time work. The need to undertake unpaid work, including housework, childcare (parenting and grandparenting) and ill/elderly care, remains a particular constraint to women’s participation in paid work.
- Alkhatib, A., M. Berstein, and M. Levi. 2017. Examining crowd work and gig work through the historical lens of piecework. Association for Computing Machinery CHI Conference 2017.Google Scholar
- Deakin, S., and G. Morris. 2012. Labour law. Oxford: Hart.Google Scholar
- Delson, L. 1998. Why do men work part time? In Part-time prospects: An international comparison of part-time work in Europe, North America and the Pacific Rim, ed. J. O’Reilly and C. Fagan, 57–76. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS). 2014. Zero hours employment contracts. https://www.gov.uk/government/consultations/zero-hours-employment-contracts. Accessed 18 Dec 2016.
- Glucksmann, M. 2000. Cottons and casuals: The gendered organisation of labour in time and space. Durham: Sociology Press.Google Scholar
- Gov.uk. 2016. Shared parental leave. https://www.gov.uk/shared-parental-leave-and-pay-employer-guide/overview. Accessed 18 Dec 2016.
- Hakim, C. 2000. Work-lifestyle choices in the 21st century: Preference theory. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Hardill, I., and S. Baines. 2011. Enterprising care: Unpaid voluntary action in the 21st century. Bristol: Policy Press.Google Scholar
- Hardill, I., and J. Monk. 2016. Lifecourse methods. In The Wiley-AAG International Encyclopedia of Geography, ed. D. Richardson, N. Castree, M. Goodchild, W. Liu, A. Kobayashi, and M. Marston. Hoboken: Association of American Geographers/Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Hardill, I., and D. Wheatley. 2017. Care and volunteering: The feel good Samaritan? In Time well spent: Subjective well-being and the work-life balance, ed. D. Wheatley. London: Rowman and Littlefield International.Google Scholar
- Hochschild, A.R., and A. Machung. 1990. The second shift, working parents and the revolution at home. London: Piatkus.Google Scholar
- King, M. 2014. Protecting and representing workers in the new gig economy: The case of the freelancers union. In New labor in New York: Precarious workers and the future of the labour movement, ed. R. Milkman and E. Ott, 150–170. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
- Kirton, G., and A. Greene. 2016. The dynamics of managing diversity: A critical approach. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Lindsey, R., E. Metcalfe, and R. Edwards. 2015. Time in mixed methods longitudinal research: working across written narratives and large scale panel survey data to investigate attitudes to volunteering. In Researching the lifecourse: Critical reflections from the social sciences, ed. N. Worth and I. Hardill, 43–61. Bristol: Policy Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mandl, I., M. Curtarelli, S. Riso, O. Vargas, and E. Gerogiannis. 2015. New forms of employment in Europe. Dublin: Eurofound.Google Scholar
- Mulcahy, D. 2016. The gig economy: The complete guide to getting better work, taking more time off, and financing the life you want. New York: American Management Association.Google Scholar
- NESTA. 2014. Making sense of the UK collaborative economy. http://www.nesta.org.uk/sites/default/files/making_sense_of_the_uk_collaborative_economy_14.pdf. Accessed 18 Jan 2017.
- NOMIS. 2016. Annual population survey 2015: Economic activity and unemployment rates. Office for National Statistics. http://www.nomisweb.co.uk. Accessed 18 Jan 2017.
- Office for National Statistics (ONS). 2013. Women in the labour market 2013. https://www.ons.gov.uk/employmentandlabourmarket/peopleinwork/employmentandemployeetypes/articles/womeninthelabourmarket/2013-09-25. Accessed 18 Jan 2017.
- ———. 2015a. UK labour market. http://www.ons.gov.uk/employmentandlabourmarket/peopleinwork/employmentandemployeetypes/bulletins/uklabourmarket/2015-08-12. Accessed 18 Jan 2017.
- ———. 2015b. Annual survey of hours and earnings, 2015 provisional results. http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171778_385428.pdf. Accessed 18 Jan 2017.
- ———. 2016. Trends in self-employment in the UK: 2001 to 2015. http://www.ons.gov.uk/employmentandlabourmarket/peopleinwork/employmentandemployeetypes/articles/trendsinselfemploymentintheuk/2001to2015. Accessed 18 Jan 2017.
- Scott, J., and E. Clery. 2013. Gender roles: An incomplete revolution? British social attitudes: The 30th report. http://www.bsa.natcen.ac.uk/media/38457/bsa30_gender_roles_final.pdf. Accessed 18 Jan 2017.
- The Work Foundation. 2016. In search of the gig economy. http://www.theworkfoundation.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/407_In-search-of-the-gig-economy_June2016.pdf. Accessed 18 Jan 2017.
- Wales, P., and A.A. Amankwah. 2016. Trends in self-employment in the UK: 2001 to 2015. https://www.ons.gov.uk/employmentandlabourmarket/peopleinwork/employmentandemployeetypes/articles/trendsinselfemploymentintheuk/2001to2015/pdf. Accessed 18 Jan 2017.
- Walling, A. 2007. Understanding statistics on full-time/part-time employment. Economic and Labour Market Review 1: 36–43, in ONS Crown CopyrightGoogle Scholar
- Wheatley, D. 2017. Work-time, the quality of work and well-being. In Time well spent: Subjective well-being and the work-life balance, ed. D. Wheatley. London: Rowman and Littlefield International.Google Scholar
- Wilson, R., N. Sofroniou., R. Beaven, M. May-Gillings, S. Perkins, M. Lee, P. Glover, H. Limmer, and A. Leach, on behalf of the UK Commission for Employment and Skills. 2016. Working futures 2014–2020, Evidence report 100. London: UKCES.Google Scholar