Gender Differences in Paid and Unpaid Work

  • Daniel Wheatley
  • Christopher Lawton
  • Irene Hardill
Part of the Palgrave Explorations in Workplace Stigma book series (PAEWS)


Wheatley, Lawton and Hardill evidence the gendered nature of patterns of paid and unpaid work in advanced societies from a life-course perspective, using data from the UK. Despite a whole raft of social legislation, labour market participation remains highly gendered. Patterns of paid work have become increasingly diverse and flexible with a growth in precarious and gig work, especially among younger and older adults. While overall participation in paid work may be converging among men and women, most men still engage in full-time employment (or self-employment) for the majority of the life course, while over 40% of women report part-time work. The need to undertake unpaid work, including housework, childcare (parenting and grandparenting) and ill/elderly care, remains a particular constraint to women’s participation in paid work.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Wheatley
    • 1
  • Christopher Lawton
    • 2
  • Irene Hardill
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Business and Labour EconomicsBirmingham Business School, University of BirminghamBirminghamUK
  2. 2.Department of EconomicsNottingham Business School, Nottingham Trent UniversityNottinghamUK
  3. 3.Northumbria Centre for Citizenship and Civil SocietyNorthumbria UniversityNewcastleUK

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