The IPL World Reports on Landslides (WRL) database is created as a cooperation platform for sharing landslide case studies and the best practice in the global landslide community. ICL and IPL wishes to promote and publish global landslide information using the ICL/IPL network for the ISDR-ICL Sendai Partnership 2015–2025 and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030 through WRL activities were assigned as one of priority action. World Report on Landslides data base contains 40 submitted reports on landslide cases over the world. The best rating reports are accessible for world-wide landslide community as open access data, as well as all basic reports. In this paper results of ICL/IPL World Report on Landslides Commeetee members and related activities from 2010 to 2016 are presented.
- Sendai partnership
The International Consortium on Landslides (ICL) and International Program on Landslides (IPL) created web data base and web cooperation platform for sharing information about landslide case studies in the global landslide community. The idea of World Report on Landslides (WRL) was first examined in the ICL-IPL Secretariat meeting held on January 2010 in Kyoto, Japan. The WRL web portal and the instruction for authors were launched before the ICL-IPL meeting in November 2010. The portal and Instruction for authors were further examined in the ICL-IPL meeting during 2nd World Landslide Forum in Rome, Italy, 2011. The idea of Sendai Partnership 2015–2030 at 3rd World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR) as well as Beijing Declaration during 3rd World Landslide Forum 2014 were built and ICL coordinator for WRL was elected. After ICL Steering Committee meeting KoFei Liu started to manage WRL with Faisal Fathani as web moderator in October 2014. At the 3rd WCDRR which was convened by the United Nations and hosted by Japan in Sendai from 14 to 18 March 2015, the ICL and its IPL, besides The Sendai Partnership 2015–2030 for Global Promotion of Understanding and Reducing Landslide Disaster Risk, contributed further to the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction with additional three main types of activities:
Publication of ICL Landslides Journal to communicate frontier of Landslide Science and Technology
Publication of Landslide Dynamics: ISDR-ICL Landslide Interactive Teaching Tools for Education and Capacity development and
IPL web portal for World Report on Landslides to inform global landslide community about world-wide landslide case studies, thereby promoting research cooperation within ICL members though IPL web platform.
ICL and IPL wishes to promote and publish global landslide information using the ICL and IPL network for the ISDR-ICL Sendai Partnership 2015–2025 and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030 through WRL activities were assigned.
Progress of WRL activities was reported on ICL-IPL Kyoto Conference in March 2016 and followed by activities with Kyoji Sassa during March–October 2016. The Chair of WRL Committee was replaced by Biljana Abolmasov (University of Belgrade, Serbia) and Deputy Chairs are KoFei Liu (National Taiwan University, Chinese Taipei) and Teuku Faisal Fathani (University of Gadjah Mada, Indonesia). Core members of WRL are Khang Dang (ICL research promotion officer, Kyoto University, Japan) and Miloš Marjanović (University of Belgrade, Serbia). The WRL activities were presented and examined during ICL-IPL UNESCO Conference 15–18 November 2016 within ICL members.
In this paper results of ICL/IPL World Report on Landslides Commeetee members and related activities from 2010 to 2016 are presented.
World Report on Landslides
The IPL World Reports on Landslides (WRL) database is created as a cooperation platform for sharing landslide case studies and the best practice in the global landslide community. The reports may be used for research and capacity development in landslide risk reduction activities in the frame of the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR). Generally, everyone is welcome to contribute landslide case studies in this WRL database as the reporter. Landslide experts of ICL members and colleagues are invited to contribute landslide cases over the World Reports on Landslides at IPL web page http://iplhq.org/ls-world-report-on-landslide/ (Fig 1).
Instruction for Authors
This instruction provide explanation of items in Data Sheet for World Report on Landslides. Every report should be prepared according to the unified data information:
Landslide Case Identifier (LCI)—Each registered landslide case has its own Identifier number. Number consists of three letter country code (ISO 3166-1 alpha-3) and year/date/time of submission (Example: JPN1512101230).
Location of landslides—Unit of latitude and longitude should be in degree/minute/second. It is possible to find the latitude and longitude of reporting landslide by using the Google earth.
Authors—Office and Address are necessary to identify the authors.
Landslide Types—Types of movements and material involved are illustrated in The Landslide Handbook—A Guide to Understanding Landslides (Highland and Bobrowsky 2008), IPL Project 106.
Velocity—velocity range which is estimated or guessed as the maximum speed range of reporting landslide (extremely rapid, very rapid, rapid, moderate, slow, very slow and extremely slow, unknown) has to be selected.
Slope—range of slope which is measured or guessed for the case (extremely steep, very steep, steep, moderate, gentle, very gentle and almost flat, unknown) has to be selected.
Depth—depth range which is measured, estimated or guessed for the reporting landslide (extremely deep, very deep, deep, moderate, shallow, very shallow, extremely shallow, unknown) has to be selected.
Volume—volume range which is estimated or guessed for landslide reporting (extremely large, very large, large, large-moderate, moderate-small, small, very small, unknown) has to be selected.
Activity—data about landslide occurrence has to be filled in if known: Date of occurrence: Day/Month/Year and state of activity (currently active, active in the past) or unknown. If the landslide is moving slowly or repeatedly moves, it can be classified as currently active.
Triggering factors—one or more triggers (rainfall, earthquake, snow melting, erosion, human activities, others, unknown) have to be selected.
Damage—Damage is presented as number of death(s) and/0r missing persons, houses and other structural damage and economical loss if estimated.
Land use—Land use should be explained for source area and run-out/deposition area (forest, farming, pasture, wildland, urban area, human settlement, industrial use, road, railways, sea/lake, river, cultural heritage site).
Description—It has to be provided summary for reporting landslide and reference paper.
In addition, the reporter is asked to provide further information on landslide case as attachment files such as photo, map, plan and cross section, figures or simulation video.
Instruction for authors is available at http://iplhq.org/icl/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/1.-Instruction-for-WRL-Final.doc.
Guide to Submit Report
Before reporting landslide cases, authors need to register with the registration form. The system will send ID and password via email. After registration, authors need to login to input data for reporting landslide. After login, reporter will be redirected to landslide report submission form. To submit landslide report, reporter have to fill in the Report Form personal information (Email address, First Name, Last Name, Country and Institution) and landslide data (Landslide name, Landslide Case Identifier and other relevant data). After filling in the necessary fields, reporter have to submit report to save into database. On successful submission reporter will see success notification within green box on top of the page.
Guidelines on report submission are available at http://iplhq.org/icl/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/2.-Guide-to-submit-reports.docx.
Rating and Accessibility
Each report is rated by 7 components (basic information, plan/section, reference, graphics and other resources) attached to the report (Table 1). WRL report is rated by the total rating points from 1 to 7, so that each component brings 1 point. Each report is categorized from ★1 to ★7, depending on the sum of rating points. ICL earning points are then calculated as a total sum of all accepted reports given by one reporter. Reporter earns accessibility to other reports by earning sufficient amount of these ICL points. However, ★1 report is open for everyone, while access to other reports from ★2 to ★7 requires ICL earning points obtained by accepted reports, except open access reports (high category reports assigned by the WRL Committee). Report can be submitted by one or maximally two reporters, and their names are shown in the ICL-WRL web portal. In the case of two authors, both will obtain the same amount of ICL points (from one to seven) for their report. It is important to notice that is necessary to obtain signed authorisation sheet from both reporters to avoid any plagiarism of WRL report.
Rating and accessibility of WRL is available at http://iplhq.org/icl/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/3.-Rating-and-Accessibility-of-WRL-16.10.20.doc.
Progress of the World Report on Landslides
Web platform and data base of IPL World Report on Landslides are functionally operated since 2010, but during 2016 additional improvements of visibility and more functionality are established. The Instruction for Authors, Guide to Submit Report and Rating and Accessibility information were revised and in the revised version linked to IPL web page. The procedure for submitting, revision and publishing responsibilities were discussed during autumn 2016. Summary report of those activities was presented on ICL/IPL meeting in UNESCO, Paris in November 2016.
Up to now (December 15 2016), the World Report on Landslides database contains 40 submitted reports on landslide cases over the world (Fig. 2). Seventeen of these reports are still not published (waiting for authorization), while 23 of them are available on the web platform (Table 2). The most of reports are rated as more than ★5, which means that almost all components are included in the report. One published report is rated as ★1 which means that only basic landslide information is provided. The simple analysis of reported landslides and their distribution according to the obtained rating points are given in Fig. 3.
The analysis of reports by country origin shows that the highest number of WRL (uploaded or published) originated from Japan (45%), (http://www.iplhq.org/) and (Fig. 3). Four of reports with highest obtained points ★7 and ★6 are also from Japan, two with point ★6 are from Serbia and Croatia, and one with rating ★5 is from Vietnam, respectively (Table 2 and 3).
The main idea of Committee members is to share landslide basic information from landslide reports with rating points ★1 for everyone. The best rating reports in the WRL data base are free accessible for everyone too, as an example of best practice and support for promotion and cooperation activities between ICL members and world landslide community. The list of open access WRL reports are listed in Table 3.
An example of free access of World Report on Landslides is 1792 Unzen-Mayuyama landslide which killed around 15.000 people by landslide and landslide induced tsunami. The following Figures shows geographical position of landslide (Fig. 4); cross section of landslide (Fig. 5); testing data from samples taken from landslide (Fig. 6) and Screenshot of video simulation results (Fig. 7) uploaded on YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GwAWjdXXNbk.
Open communication with society through integrated research and knowledge transfer are initial fields of cooperation in research and capacity building in the UNISDR-ICL Sendai partnership 2015-2025 Resolution. The ICL/IPL WRL data base and web platform are one of three major types of global ICL/IPL activities within voluntary commitment to the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.
ICL members and other landslide experts colleagues are invited to contribute landslide cases over the World Reports on Landslides at IPL web page.
Committee members support landslide reporting with a goal to:
Increasing number of reports from over the world, generally (to share global information)
Improving quality of reports in scientific and technical content (to share knowledge)
Improving number of reports with high rating points (to share best practice data and examples) as free-open access data.
ISDR-ICL Partnership is focused on delivering information and practical results within landslides community that are directly related to the implementation of Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. That ICL/IPL World Report on Landslide activities are promoting integrated research, knowledge transfer, education activities and capacity building in the coming years.
Highland LM, Bobrowsky P (2008) The landslide handbook-a guide to understanding landslides: Reston, Virginia, U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1325, 129 p
The authors are thankful to ICL members for comments and suggestion and reporters for their contribution in IPL WRL activities. The authors would also like to thank Khang Dang, Ha Nguyen Duc and Pham Tien from Kyoto University, DPRI, Japan, and Miloš Marjanović from University of Belgrade, Serbia for their extensive help.
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Abolmasov, B., Fathani, T.F., Liu, K., Sassa, K. (2017). Progress of the World Report on Landslides . In: Sassa, K., Mikoš, M., Yin, Y. (eds) Advancing Culture of Living with Landslides. WLF 2017. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59469-9_18
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