Aim of Landslide Dynamics: ISDR-ICL Landslide Interactive Teaching Tools

The International Consortium on Landslides (ICL) proposed the ISDR-ICL Sendai Partnerships 2015–2025 for global promotion of understanding and reducing landslide disaster risk at a session of “Underlying risk factors” of the 3rd WCDRR on the morning of 16 March 2015. The partnership was proposed as a voluntary commitment to the World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction, Sendai, Japan, 2015, and also as tools for implementing and monitoring the Post-2015 Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction and the Sustainable Development Goals. It was approved and signed by 16 global stakeholders in the afternoon of the same day in Sendai, Japan, and the Secretary-General Mr. Petteri Taalas of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) signed it on 16 April 2016. The number of current ICL members (as of 30 November 2016) that are a part of the Sendai Partnerships is 64. The number will be updated every year. The signatory organizations may increase at the high-level panel discussion and the round-table discussion during the Fourth World Landslide Forum in Ljubljana, Slovenia in 2017. The Sendai Partnerships is being updated during the period.

The Sendai partnerships acknowledge that

  • At a higher level, social and financial investment is vital for understanding and reducing landslide disaster risk, in particular social and institutional vulnerability, through coordination of policies, planning, research, capacity development, and the production of publications and tools that are accessible, available free of charge and are easy to use for everyone in both developing and developed countries.

Landslide science and technologies have continuously been developed to be more reliable, precise or cost-effective for landslide disaster risk reduction over the world. However, this scientific and technological progress has not been shared equally over the world. The gap between the available level of science and technologies and the practical use of those in many countries, regions and communities is very wide. To fill this gap, ICL has created Landslide Interactive Teaching Tools, which are always updated and continuously improved, based on responses from users and lessons during their application. All text books gradually become outdated. To avoid this problem, ICL plans to upload the latest teaching tools in the WEB of Teaching Tools and print text tools periodically.

Landslide Dynamics

A landslide is a downslope movement of rock, soil or both (Cruden 1991, 1996). Landslide disasters are caused by exposure to hazardous motions of soil and rock that threaten vulnerable human settlement in mountains, cities, coasts, and islands, as stated in the Sendai Partnerships. Understanding “Landslide dynamics” is the very basis of landslide disaster risk reduction.

Organizations Contributing Teaching Tools

Each teaching tool will be submitted by the teaching tool contributing organization as shown in the list of contribution organizations. Each organization has its own Teaching Tool Identifying Number consisting of telephone number of the country and the registered number within the country (Table 1). The involvement of organization as well as individual researcher is better to keep quality and updating of each tool.

Table 1 List of contributing organizations with identifier number and email of leader

Outline of the ISDR-ICL Landslide Interactive Teaching Tools

The teaching tools are classified in five major parts. The part number is included in each teaching tool identifier.

  1. 0.


    1. (1)

      Landslide Types: Description, illustrations and photos

    2. (2)

      Landslide Dynamics for risk assessment

  2. 1.

    Mapping and Site Prediction

    1. (1)

      Basic Mapping

    2. (2)

      Site Prediction Using GIS

    3. (3)

      Field Guidelines

  3. 2.

    Monitoring and Early Warning

    1. (1)

      Remote Sensing Techniques for Landslide Monitoring

    2. (2)

      Monitoring System Instrumentation

    3. (3)

      Rainfall Threshold for Landslide Prediction

    4. (4)

      Landslide Time Prediction from Pre-failure Movement Monitoring

    5. (5)

      Guidelines for Landslide Monitoring and Early Warning Systems

  4. 3.

    Risk Assessment

    1. (1)

      Numerical Modeling and Simulation

    2. (2)

      Physical and Mathematical Modeling

    3. (3)

      Laboratory Soil Testing for Landslide Analysis

    4. (4)

      Analysis and Assessment of Landslides

  5. 4.

    Risk Management and Country Practices

    1. (1)

      Landslide Risk Management

    2. (2)

      Community Risk Management

    3. (3)

      Country Practices.

The teaching tools consist of three types of tools.

  1. 1.

    The first type are text-tools consisting of original texts with figures. The first edition includes two volumes of books.

  2. 2.

    The second type are PPT-tools consisting of PowerPoint files and video tools made for visual lectures.

  3. 3.

    The third type are PDF-tools consisting of already published reference papers/reports, guidelines, laws and others.

    The second and the third type of tools are supplementary tools of the text tools (text books).

    Each teaching tool has its own identifier. The identifier of each tool consists of three parts:

  1. 1.

    the number of the part of the tool box in which it appears (Parts 0–4);

  2. 2.

    the country telephone code and an assigned unique number for each contributing organization (for example 081-1 signifies Japan-ICL headquarters, and 081-3 signifies Japan – Erosion and Sediment Control Department, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism);

  3. 3.

    the last part of the identifier is a consecutive number assigned to the teaching tool by its contributing organization.

The following tables (Tables 1, 2, 3 and 4) present the list of contributing organizations and the list of contents of the teaching tools.

Table 2 Contents of text tools
Table 3 Contents of PPT tools and video tools
Table 4 Contents of PDF tools

Fundamentals of the ISDR-ICL Landslide Interactive Teaching Tools (LITT)

All tools include visual explainations with many full color illustrations and photos. The tools start from two fundamental tools (TXT Tool 0.001-2.1 and TXT Tool 0.081-1.1). To present examples and illustration and photos used in LITT and also present an overview of the content of two fundamental aspects, some selected illustrations and photos are presented below.

Landslide Types: Descriptions, Illustrations and Photos

All figures and captions are copied from TXT Tool 0.001-2.1. Fig. 1

Fig. 1
figure 1

This graphic illustrates commonly-used labels for the parts of a landslide. The image shows a rotational landslide that has evolved into an earthflow (modified from Varnes, 1978)


The definitions of landslides were not uniform around the world before the United Nations International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 1990–2000. Landslide disasters are one of the major disasters to be tackled in IDNDR. The united definition of landslides forms the basis for investigations and statistics of landslide disasters, through IDNDR as its base. The International Geotechnical Societies and UNESCO Working Group for World Landslide Inventory (Chair: David Cruden) was established. The landslide was then defined to be “the movement of a mass of rock, debris or earth down a slope”. The types were explained in detail in “Landslides-investigation and mitigation”, edited by A Keith Turner and Robert L, Schuster, Special Report 247 of the National Research Council (U.S.) Transportation Research Board in 1996. In order to disseminate this definition of landslides, including debris flows, rock falls and others, Lynn Highland and Peter Bobrowsky implemented the IPL 106 Best Practice handbook for landslide hazard mitigation (2002–2007) to create a handbook on landslides and published its result as “The Landslide Handbook—A guide to Understanding Landslides” (USGS Circular 1325) (Highland and Bobrowsky 2008). This book was well evaluated and translated into several languages. This project was awarded an “IPL Award for Success” at the Second World Landslide Forum at FAO Headquarters, Rome, October 2011. This definition, which includes debris flows, rock falls and other different types of landslides, is the basis of landslide science and it is the base of the International Journal “Landslides” founded in 2004. TXT Tool 0.001-2.1 (Highland and Bobrowsky 2017) presents many photos and illustrations to explain this definition by IDNDR, as the major contribution from the global landslide community.

The following four types of landslides: Falls (falls and topples), Slides (rotational and translational), Spreads and Flows (debris flow and debris avalanches) are explained using illustrations and photo examples in Figs. 2, 3, 4 and 5.

Fig. 2
figure 2

Illustrations and photos of an example of Falls. a Schematic illustration of rockfall. Note that rocks may roll and bounce at potentially great distances depending on a number of factors. b A large rockfall due to the May, 2008 Wenchuan, China Earthquake. Photo by Dave Wald, U.S. Geological Survey. c Schematic illustration of a topple. d A topple in the vicinity of Jasper National Park, British Columbia, Canada. Photo by G. Bianchi Fasani

Fig. 3
figure 3

Illustrations and photos of examples of slides. a Schematic of a rotational landslide. b A photo of a rotational landslide, showing the Dainichi-san landslide triggered by the October 23, 2004 Mid-Niigata Prefecture earthquake (Sassa 2005). c Schematic of a translational (parallel to slope) landslide. d The Minami-Aso Landslide shows a translational landslide in a steep slope. The landslide was triggered by the Kumamoto Earthquake of 2016 in Japan (Dang et al. 2016). Photo taken from UAV by Khang Dang and Kyoji Sassa

Fig. 4
figure 4

Illustration and photo of an example of a spread. a Schematic of a lateral spread. b Lateral spreads at Hebgen Lake near West Yellowstone, Montana (USA), due to the effects of the Magnitude 7.3 Hebgen Lake earthquake, on August 18, 1959. Photo by R.B. Colton, U.S. Geological Survey

Fig. 5
figure 5

Illustrations and photos of examples of flows Debris flows and debris avalanches are introduced as a major group of flow types of landslides. a Schematic illustration of a debris flow. b A photo of the July 20, 2003 debri flow which occurred in Minamata City, Kyushu Island, Japan, resulting in 14 deaths and 15 houses destroyed (Sassa et al. 2004). c Schematic of a debris avalanche. d A debris avalanche that buried a village in Guinsaugon, Southern Leyte, Philippines, in February, 2006 (Photo by University of Tokyo Geotechnical Team)

Landslide Dynamics for Risk Assessment (TXT-Tool 0.081-1.1)

All figures and captions are copied from TXT-Tool 0.081-1.1.

Figure 6 presents three major types of tests to measure the shear strength of soils: (1) Direct shear tests (shear box tests) in which a sample is sheared until failure in the drained condition in a shear speed control test, (2) Triaxial compression tests in which a sample is compressed until failure, either in either a drained condition or undrained condition, in either a stress control or speed control test, 3. Ring shear test in which a sample is sheared until a residual strength is obtained after failure in the drained condition during a speed control test.

Fig. 6
figure 6

Major three types of shear test to measure the shear strength of soils. A and B (Direct shear and Triaxial compression tests) are to measure the shear strength at failure. C (Ring shear test) is to measure the residual shear strength after failure

Figure 7 presents the new undrained dynamic loading ring shear test which can simulate the initiation and the motion of landslides, by loading normal and shear stress in the field, including seismic stress loading and pore-pressure increase during rainfall. The most important feature of this new apparatus is the ability of to maintain an undrained condition and the measurement of pore-water pressure changes near the sliding surface (zone). The most important factor for the landslide disaster risk assessment is the estimation of velocity and the travel distance, and the moving area of landslides. The velocity and hazard area of a landslide is controlled by shear resistance mobilized in the sliding surface of the landslide. The resistance is regulated by the pore water pressure generated during initiation and motion, as well as seismic shaking. The water leakage from the gap between the upper shear box and the lower shear box is prevented by a rubber edge. The contact stress of the rubber edge to the upper ring shear box is controlled to be higher than the generated pore water pressure in the servo-control system. Two sets of new apparatuses (ICL-1 and ICL-2) were donated to Croatia and Vietnam from the Government of Japan through the SATREPS project (Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development). The system was developed to be practical toly maintain,ed even in developing countries.

Fig. 7
figure 7

An undrained dynamic-loading ring shear apparatus. The left figure presents the schematic figure of the latest version of undrained dynamic-loading ring shear apparatus (Sassa et al. 2016). The right photo shows the shear box of the apparatus. A Shear box; B Normal stress loading piston; C A pair of two shear stress sensors; D Loading cap; E Hanging frame to lift the loading cap; F Pore-pressure sensor; G Connection to the pore-pressure control system; H One-touch plug for the water drainage from the shear box; I One-touch plug for the de-aired water supply from the bottom of the shear box

Figure 8 illustrates the great effect of pore water pressure. During rainfalls, the ground water level is increased in a soil layer on the bed rock (stable) layer of the slope. The mobilized shear resistance on the sliding surface is affected by the effective weight of the soil layer.

Fig. 8
figure 8

Illustration of the initiation mechanisms of shallow and deep landslides due to rainfall

B illustrates a block inside a pool. A necessary horizontal force to move this block is decreased when a the water table will increases and the effective weight of the block is decreased by the buoyant force due to water. If the density of the block is similar to water, the block is almost floated floating in the water, and the necessary horizontal force to move this block is zero. Namely, the shear resistance between the block and the bottom of this pool is zero. The most difficult part is to know the function of pore water pressure.

Figure 9 illustrates the landslide initiation mechanism. Two figures show the normal stress and the shear stress relationships working on the sliding surface of a potential landslide. The left top shows a soil column within a slope. The mass of the soil column imparts a load (mass and gravity—mg) to the sliding surface. The shear stress component is mg·sinθ and the normal stress component is mg·cosθ. From this relationship, the initial stress is expressed as point I in this normal stress-shear stress chart, assuming no pore water pressure. When the ground water table is increased during rain, pore water pressure (u) is increased. In this case, the effective normal stress (normal stress minus pore water pressure) is decreased. Namely, the stress point in this chart will move to the left direction by u from the point I. When the stress point reaches the failure line of this soil, the soil will fail. This is the initiation of landslide by the mechanism of rainfall.

Fig. 9
figure 9

Illustration of the mechanism to trigger failure within a slope by the triggering factors of rain (left) and the pore pressure plus earthquakes (right)

The right figure illustrates the initiation of landslide by pore water pressure plus earthquake loading. In the case of slope layer that includes a certain height of ground water table, as shown in Fig. 8, the initial stress before the earthquake is located at A in Fig. 9. When an earthquake strikes this area, seismic stress is loaded. The direction and the stress level will differ depending on the earthquake acceleration and its direction, but the stress point moves from A to somewhere. If the stress point reaches the failure line, the soil layer will fail and a landslide is initiated. This is the mechanism of an earthquake-induced landslide. Whether the landslide will be initiated or not can be simulated using the undrained ring shear apparatus by loading the seismic stress (an example test result is shown in Fig. 17).

Figure 10 illustrates two cases of the undrained dynamic loading ring shear tests for the initiation of a landslide and the movement of a the landslide. A sample will be taken from the potential shear zone or the soil layer or a layer which is estimated to have the same mechanical properties. The ring shear test will be conducted to determine whether a landslide will be initiated or not as shown in Fig. 9. The initiated landslide mass will move to the lower slope or onto the alluvial deposit, as shown in the right figure of Fig. 10. The shear surface will be formed within the deposit. A sample will be taken from the deposit on which the landslide mass now loadsrests on. A dynamic stress simulating the undrained loading by the moving landslide mass is given applied to the sample in the ring shear testing. The stress necessary stress to shearing the deposit and the generated pore water pressure and mobilized shear resistance during loading and motion will be measured. Normally two tests are necessary to assess the initiation of landslide and the motion of landslides.

Fig. 10
figure 10

Schematic figure of concept of an undrained dynamic-loading ring-shear apparatus

Figure 11 shows the setup (Nos. 1–6) of the undrained ring shear apparatus of ICL-2. Within this photo:

Fig. 11
figure 11

Photo showing the setup of the ICL-2 apparatus

No. 1 is the computer and its two monitors (one for the test control system and one for the recording system).

No. 2 is the control unit, including the amplifiers for various monitoring sensors and the four servo-control amplifiers (Normal stress, shear stress, gap control and pore water pressures).

No. 3 is the main body of the undrained ring shear apparatus, including loading shear stress and speed control motor and gap control motor, normal stress loading system, the vertical and shear displacement measuring sensors, and pore pressure sensors (shown in Fig. 7).

No. 4 is the electricity supply and control system box.

No. 5 is pore pressure supply and control system.

No. 6 is the de-aired water supply system with a vacuum pump, vibration control system, and a vacuum tank to produce the sample fully saturated by de-aired water.

Figure 12 illustrates the concepts of the integrated landslide simulation model (LS-RAPID). A soil column is taken from the landslide mass, and all forces (self-weigh of soil column, the seismic forces, the lateral pressure, shear resistance on the bottom and the normal stress on the bottom) acting on this column are summed. The sum of force should accelerate the soil mass of the column. The change of pore water pressure and the resulting shear resistance on the bottom during the seismic loading, dynamic loading and shearing are obtained from testing using the undrained dynamic loading ring shear apparatus. The development of the undrained dynamic loading ring shear test has enabled the development of an integrated landslide simulation model applicable from the initiation of the motion until the termination of motion. Examples of the simulation results are shown in Figs. 13, 14 and 15.

Fig. 12
figure 12

Concept of the integrated landslide simulation model (LS-RAPID)

Fig. 13
figure 13

Simulation results of the Leyte landslide. A ru rises to 0.15 and the earthquake will start, but there is no motion. B Continued earthquake loading triggers a local failure, as shown by the red color mesh, C An entire landslide block is formed and moving, D The top of landslide mass moves onto alluvial deposits. E Deposition. Mesh size is 40 m; the area is 1960 × 3760 m; contour interval is 20 m; there is 3 m of unstable deposits on the alluvial deposit area (blue balls)

Fig. 14
figure 14

Photo of the Yagi-area and Midorii in the 2014 Hiroshima landslide-debris flow disaster

Fig. 15
figure 15

Result of LS-RAPID simulation (Sassa et al. 2014)

Figures 13, 14 and 15 are show the application of LS-RAPID (Fig. 12) using the test results of the from an undrained dynamic-loading ring shear apparatus (Figs. 8 and 11). Figure 13 is shows the application of the model to the Leyte landslide in Guinsaugon in the southern Leyte, Philippines in February 2006 (introduced in the bottom of Fig. 5). The landslide was triggered by a small nearby earthquake after a long period of rainfall (Sassa et al. 2010). Figure 13 and its caption explains the simulation result in the time series figure. For the initial two figures of A and B, the loaded initial pore water ratio due to rain and the loaded seismic stress calculated from the seismic record are shown.

Figure 14 is a photo of the Yagi and Midorii area of Hiroshima city, Japan (Doan et al. 2016). Both areas and the surrounding areas were struck by debris flows which came from the many of shallow landslides from the top of slopes during a local heavy rain. In all 74 people were killed in the urbanized residential areas. Figure 15 shows the result of the LS-RAPID computer simulation using the landslide dynamics parameters obtained from the testing using the undrained dynamic-loading ring shear apparatus. For the triggering factors, the 10-minute rainfall record was used. The initiation and the motion of landslides and the landslide hazard areas are reasonably reproduced by this simulation.

Figures 16, 17, and 18 present a study of the 1792 Unzen Mayuyama landslide using undrained ring shear testing and the integrated computer simulation. Figure 16 shows the Google view of the landslide. The urban area is Shimabara city and the sea is the Ariake Sea on Kyushu island of Japan. The mountain is a part of Unzen volcano. This 1792 Unzen Mayuyama landslide-and-tsunami-induced disaster is both the largest landslide disaster and also the largest volcanic disaster in Japan, and also one of greatest tsunami disasters in Japan. The landslide mass entered into the Ariake Sea. Currently there are still some islands which are parts of the landslide mass deposited in the Ariake Sea. S1 is the sampling point to study landslide initiation behavior and S2 is the sampling point to study the motion of the landslide. All the area of the moving landslide mass area is now covered by heavily developed urban building. A sample was taken from the outside of the landslide moving area. Figure 17 is an example of the undrained ring shear testing, which involved (1) loading the initial shear stress and the normal stress, (2) loading pore water pressure before the earthquake, (3) loading the seismic stress using the seismic acceleration record of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Earthquake, which triggered a large-scale landslide (67 million cubic meters) (Miyagi et al. 2010). The earthquake was not recorded in 1792, but the acceleration was estimated based on detailed investigation of the damage to the houses and the tomb stones in Shimabara city. The test results indicate a steady-state shear resistance of 157 kPa and a friction angle during motion of 41°. Pore water pressure is built up during seismic loading and the pressure was very much increased in the progress of shearing.

Fig. 16
figure 16

Overview of the 1792 Unzen-Mayuyama landslide

Fig. 17
figure 17

Undrained seismic loading test on Sample 1 (S1). BD = 0.94, Seismic wave: 2008 Iwata-Miyagi Earthquake record, 5 times slower speed

Fig. 18
figure 18

LS-RAPID simulation result of the 1792 Unzen-Mayuyama landslide

Figure 18 is the simulation result of this landslide from its initiation to the motion into the sea. The initial landslide started from the middle of the source area (17 s) and the progressive failure expanded to the top of the landslide source area (26 s) and the total mass moved into the sea (64 s) and stopped after 226 s. The length of the deposit area from the simulation is rather close to the area determined by field investigation by the Unzen Restoration Office.

Figures 19, 20, and 21 present the most advanced study of the landslide-induced tsunami, which was published online (April 2016) and in print (Sassa et al., Landslides Vol. 13, No. 6, 2016). Figure 19 presents the historical record of the landslide-induced tsunami disaster in the 1792 Unzen Mayuyama landslide and tsunami. In this disaster, 15,153 people were killed.

Fig. 19
figure 19

Records of the Unzen landslide-and-tsunami disaster (by Unzen Restauration Office 2003). The total number of deaths is 15,153 persons. The size of circles is proportional to the number of human fatalities in the area. The legend for the number of deaths is show in the right-top corner. A Disasters around Ariake Sea and monuments by the Shimabara-Taihen, Higo-Meiwaku. The “Catastrophe” in Shimabara Area and “Annoyance” or “adversely affected” in Higo (Kumamoto) Region. B The numbers of deaths are shown in the circles (the largest is 500 persons). C The greatest number of deaths are in Shimabara town around the castle (5251 persons). D The second largest number of deaths are in the southern part of Shimabara Peninsula (around 3500 persons). E, F and G Tsunami-Dome-Ishi (A stone showing the tsunami reaching that point) were set to record the tsunami by the communities in Kyodomari (E), Umedo (F) and Otao (G) of the Higo (Kumamoto) Han area. The Tsunami-Dome-Ishi in Kyodomari was moved for the construction of a road, but its former location is marked on the road retaining wall (by the regional education committee). The Tsunami-Dome-Ishi is limited in Higo (Kumamoto) Han area. These tsunami records are reliable. H, I Stone pillars for memorial services for deaths by tsunami in Futsu (H) and Mie (I) in Shimabara Han area

Fig. 20
figure 20

Basic principles of the landslide-induced tsunami simulation model

Fig. 21
figure 21

LS-Tsunami simulation result for the 1792 Unzen-Mayuyama landslide-induced tsunami disaster

The central disaster is the concept of the landslide-induced-tsunami simulation model (LS-Tsunami). The basic concept of this model is that the landslide-induced tsunami will be simulated using the well-established and widely used model (Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) (1997). The basic equation is shown below in Fig. 20. As the triggering factor of the tsunami, the landslide simulation results of LS-RAPID are used. Two steps are completely separated. Interactive shear forces between the landslide mass and the water is neglected. It is assumed that the vertical uplift of the sea floor by the moving landslide mass lifts the water mass above the landslide mass vertically. Figure 21 is the result of the landslide simulation, landslide-induced tsunami simulation, and the tsunami motion over the sea, including reflection from the opposite shore. The first figure at 0 m 20 s shows the initiation of landslide. The second figure at 0 m 35 s shows the landslide mass reaching the coast, the third figure at 1 m 25 s shows the tsunami wave induced by the landslide mass, the fourth figure and the fifth figures at 5 m 55 s and 10 m 45 s show the expansion of the tsunami wave. The final two figures present the reflected wave from the opposite bank (Kumamoto Prefecture) attached the Shimabara Peninsula again. The red color tsunami wave is more than 5 m above sea level and the blue color tsunami wave is more than 5 m below sea level. The detailed tsunami height records at 5 locations on land and those estimated by this computer simulation were compared. The values are rather similar in 4 locations.

ICL called for cooperation for the ISDR-ICL Landslide Interactive Teaching Tools soon after the World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR) in Sendai Japan and the establishment of the ISDR-ICL Sendai Partnerships for global promotion of understanding and reducing landslide disaster risk 2015–2025 on 16 March 2015. Many ICL members have offered their cooperation and contributed many teaching tools. ICL asked editors to evaluate those submitted tools. Tools and editors are changing during the process of producing these teaching tools. The final number of accepted teaching tools are 97 in two volumes (the total page number is 1700) and there are 11 cooperating editors. Firstly ICL appreciates all authors and their organizations which contributed teaching tools. The planned teaching tool set is not fixed, but continually evolving—it will be continuously updated, improved and enhanced by the interaction between authors and users.

The initial version of ISDR-ICL Landslide Interactive Teaching Tools will be published before the Fourth World Landslide Forum in May 2017. The tools are expected to be improved and enhanced toward the Fifth World Landslide Forum, as well as the Sendai Partnerships mid-term conference in Japan 2020. It will be very much appreciated if voluntary contributing organizations and individuals join this initiative.

All ICL member organizations and all World Centres of Excellence for Landslide Disaster Reduction (WCoEs) and non-ICL cooperating organizations are requested to contribute to capacity building using the ISDR-ICL teaching tools and to improve these living tools as better, wider and more practical resources for landslide disaster risk reduction.