Intermediators: The Sociology of Cleavages (1987–2018)

Chapter
Part of the Sociology Transformed book series (SOTR)

Abstract

Around the mid-1990s two opposing processes took place simultaneously: on the one hand, explicit controversies flared up between mainstream sociologists and new critical sociologists ; on the other hand, a more tacit process of rapprochement took place between the two sides. An intermediary position evolved and became a new sociological convention, that viewed Israel as a society afflicted by conflicts among “cleavages ,” or sectors. In 2015 Reuven Rivlin the president of the state, publicly adopted this line of thought and proclaimed the end of the “old social order,” based on a solid majority, and the beginning of a “new social order,” based on a concord between equally weighted minorities.

Keywords

Baruch Kimmerling Citizenship Gershon Shafir Historians’ debate Post-Zionism Regimes of incorporation Social cleavages Yoav Peled 

References

  1. Al-Haj, Majid, and Uri Ben-Eliezer (eds.). 2003. In The Name of Security: Sociology of Peace and War in Israel in a Changing Era. Haifa: Haifa University Press (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  2. Auron, Yair. 2012. Israeli Identities: Jews and Arabs Facing the Self and the Other. New York: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  3. Bar Levav, Avriel, Ron Margolin, and Shmuel Fiener (eds.). 2012. Secularization Processes in Jewish Culture (2 Vols.). Raanana: The Open Universy (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  4. Ben Porat, Guy. 2013. Between State and Synagogue: The Secularization of Contemporary Israel. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Ben Rafael, Eliezer, Yitahak Sternberg, and Moshe Lissak (eds.). 2007. New Elites in Israel. Tel Aviv: Bialik Institute (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  6. Ben-Rafael, Eliezer, and Yohanan Peres. 2010. Is Israel One: Religion, Nationalism, and Multiculturalism Confounded. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  7. Ben-Rafael, Eliezer, Julius H. Schoeps, Yitzhak Sternberg, and Olaf Glöckner (eds.). 2017. Handbook of Israel—Major Debates (2 Vols). Berlin: De Gruyter Reference.Google Scholar
  8. Deshen, Shlomo, Charles S. Liebman, and Moshe Shokeid (eds.). 1995. Israeli Judaism (Studies of Israeli society; v. 7). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.Google Scholar
  9. Eisenstadt, Shmuel Noah. 2004. Transformations of Israeli Society. Tel Aviv: Ministry of Defense Publications (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  10. Feige, Michael. 2009. Settling in the Hearts: Jewish Fundamentalism in the Occupied Territories. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. Google Scholar
  11. Grinberg, Lev. 2013. Mo(ve)ments of Resistance: Politics, Economy and Society in Israel 1931–2013. Academic Studies Press.Google Scholar
  12. Helman, Sara, and Tamar Rapoport. 1997. Women in Black: Challenging Israel’s Gender and Socio-Political Orders. British Journal of Sociology 48 (4): 681–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Helman, Sara. 2001. Citizenship Regime, Identity and Peace Protest in Israel. In The Military, State and Society in Israel: Theoretical and Comparative Perspectives, ed. Daniel Maman, Zeev Rosenhek, and Eyal Ben Ari, 295–318. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  14. Horowitz, Dan, and Moshe Lissak. 1989. Troubles in Utopia: The Overburdened Polity of Israel. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  15. Kalev, Alexandra, Yehouda Shenhav, and David De Vries. 2008. The State, the Labor Process, and the Diffusion of Managerial Models. Administrative Science Quarterly 53: 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kemp, Adriana, and Rivka Raijman. 2008. Migrants and Workers: The Political Economy of Labor Migration in Israel. Tel Aviv: Van Leer and Hakibbutz Hameuhad (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  17. Khattab, N., and S. Miaari (eds.). 2013. Palestinians in the Israeli Labor Market. New York, NY: Palgrave-Macmillan.Google Scholar
  18. Kimmerling, Baruch. 1993. Patterns of Militarism in Israel. In idem Clash of Identities: Explorations in Israeli and Palestinian Societies, 132–153. New York: Columbia University Press (2008).Google Scholar
  19. Kimmerling, Baruch. 1998. The New Israelis: Multiple Cultures without Multiculturalism. Alpayim 16: 264308 (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  20. Kimmerling, Baruch. 2001a. The End of Askenazi Hegemony (Ketz Shilton HaAHUSALIM). Jerusalem: Keter (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  21. Kimmerling, Baruch. 2001b. The Invention and Decline of Israeliness. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  22. Kimmerling, Baruch. 2004. Immigrants, Settlers and Natives: State and Society in Israel—Between Cultural Pluralism and Culture War. Tel Aviv: Am Oved Publishing (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  23. Leon, Nissim. 2014. Ethno-religious Fundamentalism and Theo-ethnocratic Politics in Israel. Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism 14 (1): 20–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Levy, Yagil. 2015. The Supreme Command: The Theologization of Israel’s Military. Tel Aviv: Am Oved Publishing (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  25. Lewin-Epstein, Noah, and Moshe Semyonov (eds.). 2004. Stratification in Israel: Class, Ethnicity, and Gender (Series: Studies of Israeli Society Vol. 10). Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  26. Lomsky-Feder, Edna, and Eyal Ben-Ari (eds.). 2000. Military and Militarism in Israeli Society. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  27. Lomsky-Feder, Edna, and Tamar Rapoport. 2012. Israelis in Their Own Way: Migration Stories of Young Adults from the Former USSR. Jerusalem: The Magnes Press (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  28. Mautner, Menachem. 2008. Law and Culture in Israel at the Threshold of the Twenty-First Century. Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University Press and Am-Oved Publishing.Google Scholar
  29. Peled, Yoav. 1998. Towards a Redefinition of Jewish Nationalism in Israel? The Enigma of “Shas.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 21 (4): 703–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Peleg, Ilan. 2007. Democratizing the Hegemonic State: Political Transformation in the Age of Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Peri, Yoram. 2005. Rabin’s Assassination and the Culture War in Israel. Tel Aviv: Bavel (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  32. Ram, Uri. 2007. The Globalization of Israel: McWorld in Tel Aviv; Jihad in Jerusalem. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  33. Ram, Uri (ed.). 1993. Israeli Society: Critical Perspectives. Tel Aviv: Breirot (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  34. Rivlin, Reuven. 2015. The Orthodox, the Secular, the Religious or the Arab Cannot Fill Threatened. News_070615-01.spx/ThePresident/Speeches/Pages/http://www.president.gov.il.
  35. Rosenhek, Zeev. 2000. Migration Regimes, Intra-state Conflicts, and the Politics of Exclusion and Inclusion: Migrant Workers in the Israeli Welfare State. Social Problems 47 (1): 49–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sallaz, Jeffrey J., and Jane Zaviska. 2007. Bourdieu in American Sociology 1890–2004. Annual Review of Sociology 33: 21–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Semyonov, M., and N. Lewin-Epstein (eds.). 2004. Stratification in Israel: Class, Ethnicity and Gender. Somerset, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  38. Shafir, Gershon, and Yoav Peled. 2002. Being Israeli: the Dynamics of Multiple Citizenship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Smooha, Sammy. 1997. Ethnic Democracy: Israel as an Archetype. Israel Studies 2 (2): 198–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Smooha, Sammy. 2002. The Model of Ethnic Democracy: Israel as a Jewish and Democratic State. Nations and Nationalism 8 (4): 475–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Stier, Haya, and Noah Lewin-Epstein. 1999. Women’s Employment Pattern: Long-Term Effects on their Earnings. Israeli Sociology A (2): 239–256 (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  42. Vinitzky-Seroussi, Vered. 2009. Yitzhak Rabin’s Assassination and the Dilemmas of Commemoration. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  43. Yaar, Ephraim, and Zeev Shavit (eds.). 2001. Trends in Israeli Society (2 Vols.). Raanana: The Open University.Google Scholar
  44. Yadgar, Yaacov, Gideon Katz, and Shalom Ratzabi (eds.). 2014. Beyond Halakha: Traditionality, Secularism and New Age Culture in Israel. Iyunim Betkumat Israel 7. Sde Boquer: Ben Gurion Institute and Ben Gurion University (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  45. Yadgar, Yaacov. 2011. Secularism and Religion in Jewish Israeli Politics: Traditionists and Modernity. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  46. Yatziv, Gadi. 1999. The Sectoral Society. Ramat Gan: Bialik Institute (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  47. Yiftachel, Oren. 2006. Ethnocracy: Land and Identity Politics in Israel/Palestine. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  48. Yona, Yossi, and Yehuda Goodman (eds.). 2004. Maelstrom of Identities: A Critical Look at Religion and Secularity in Israel. Jerusalem: Van Leer Jeusalem Institute and Hakibbutz Hameuhad (Hebrew).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sociology and AnthropologyBen Gurion University of the NegevBeer ShevaIsrael

Personalised recommendations