Where is the Love? White Nationalist Discourse on Hip-hop



Influenced by a professional interest in political hip-hop, expressions of nationalism and sociolinguistic constructions of otherness, this chapter explores the discursive intersections of racialized identities as formulated around, and in response to, hip-hop culture. In contrast to several other chapters presented within this volume, the expressions of dissatisfaction and dissent showcased come not through examination of lyrical content. Discursive data is instead drawn from the discussion boards of Stormfront (, a virtual community dedicated to the promotion of white nationalism and white supremacy (De Koster and Houtman, 2008).


  1. Abe, D. (2009). Hip-hop and the academic canon. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 4(3), 1–10.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, E. (1994). Satokata Takahashi and the flowering of black messianic nationalism. The Black Scholar, 24, 23–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beirich, H. (2014). White homicide worldwide. Montgomery, AL: Southern Poverty Law Center.Google Scholar
  4. Bowman-Grieve, L. (2009). Exploring “Stormfront”: A virtual community of the radical right. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 32(11), 989–1007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boxer, L. (2003). Assessment of quality systems with positioning theory. In R. Harre & F. Moghaddam (Eds.), The self and others (pp. 251–278). Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  6. Brindle, A. (2016). The language of hate: A corpus linguistic analysis of white supremacist language. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Condry, I. (2006). Hip hop Japan: Rap and paths of cultural globalization. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cutler, C. A. (1999). Yorkville crossing: White teens, hip hop and African American English. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 3(4), 428–442.Google Scholar
  9. De Koster, W., & Houtman, D. (2008). Stormfront is like a second home to me. Information, Communication and Society, 11(8), 1155–1176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Decker, J. L. (1993). The state of rap: Time and place in hip hop nationalism. Social Text, (34), 53–84.Google Scholar
  11. Dreyfuss, J. (2011). Steve Stoute on hip-hop and race relations. Retrieved from:
  12. Folb, E. (1980). Runnin’ down some lines: The language and culture of black teenagers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gallagher, C. (2012). Color-blind privilege: The social and political functions of erasing the color line in post-race America. In C. Gallagher (Ed.), Rethinking the color line (pp. 100–108). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  14. Gosa, T. (2014). The conspiracy to whitewash hip-hop. Retrieved from:
  15. Guidelines for Posting. (2006). Retrieved from:
  16. Hall, S. (1997). The spectacle of the other. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  17. Harkness, G. (2012). True school: Situational authenticity in Chicago’s hip hop underground. Cultural Sociology, 6(3), 283–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Harré, R., & Slocum, N. (2003). Disputes as complex social events: On the uses of positioning theory. In R. Harré & F. Moghaddam (Eds.), The self and others (pp. 123–136). Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  19. Hewitt, R. (1986). White talk black talk: Inter-racial friendship and communication amongst adolescents. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Hicks, J. (n.d.). How hip-hop destroys the potential of black youth. Retrieved from:
  21. Hot97. (2014). Interview with Azealia Banks. Retrieved from:
  22. Huffington Post. (2015). Geraldo Rivera: ‘Hip-Hop has done more damage to black and brown people than racism in the last 10 years’. Retrieved from:
  23. Iyer, A., Leach, C. W., & Crosby, F. J. (2003). White guilt and racial compensation: The benefits and limits of self-focus. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(1), 117–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kenny, S. (1994). Unsettling community. Paper presented at T.A.S.A annual conference, Geelong, Australia.Google Scholar
  25. Kitwana, B. (2005). Why white kids love hip hop: Wankstas, Wiggers, Wannabes, and the new realities of race in America. New York: Basic Civitas Books.Google Scholar
  26. Labov, W. (1972). Language in the inner city. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  27. McWhorter, J. H. (2003). How hip-hop holds blacks back. Retrieved from:
  28. Meddaugh, P. M., & Kay, J. (2009). Hate speech or ‘reasonable racism’? The other in Stormfront. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 24(4), 251–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Middleton, J., & Beebe, R. (2002). The racial politics of hybridity and ‘neo-eclecticism’ in contemporary popular music. Popular Music, 21(2), 159–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Moore, L. N. (2003). Talkin’ loud and ain’t sayin’ nothin’. In JBHE Foundation Inc. Can hip-hop be the new driving force behind increased racial integration? (pp. 64–65). The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 38, 64–67.Google Scholar
  31. Morris, D. Z. (2013). The Sakura of madness: Japan’s Nationalist hip hop and the parallax of globalized identity politics. Communication, Culture & Critique, 6(3), 459–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Murray, H. (1999). White male privilege? A social construct for political oppression. Journal of Libertarian Studies, 14(1), 135–150.Google Scholar
  33. Oware, M. (2015). “We stick out like a sore thumb…”: Underground white rappers hegemonic masculinity and racial evasion. Sociology of Race and Ethnicity.
  34. Paccagnella, L. (1997). Getting the seats of your pants dirty: Strategies for ethno-graphic research on virtual communities. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 3(1). Retrieved from: vol3/issue1/paccagnella.html
  35. Peterson, R. A. (1997). Creating country music: Fabricating authenticity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  36. Putnam, M. T., & Littlejohn, J. T. (2007). National socialism with Fler? German hip hop from the right. Popular Music and Society, 30(4), 453–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Robertson, I. (2015). Lupe Fiasco Pens a poignant open letter to white supremacy. Retrieved from:
  38. Rodman, G. B. (2006). Race… and other four letter words: Eminem and the cultural politics of authenticity. Popular Communication, 4(2), 95–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rodriquez, J. (2006). Color-blind ideology and the cultural appropriation of hip-hop. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 35(6), 645–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rose, T. (1994). Black noise: Rap music and black culture in contemporary America. Hanover, NH: Wesleyan University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Rux, C. H. (2003). Eminem: The new white negro. In G. Tate (Ed.), Everything but the burden: What white people are taking from black culture (pp. 15–38). New York: Harlem Moon.Google Scholar
  42. Schafer, J. A. (2002). Spinning the web of hate: Web-based propagation by extremist organization. Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture, 9, 69–88.Google Scholar
  43. Socialism and Democracy Online. (2011). Hip-hop white wash: The impact of Eminem on rap music and music industry economics. Retrieved from
  44. Southern Poverty Law Center. (2016). Stormfront. Retrieved from:
  45. Thomas, D. L. (2016). Niggers and japs: The formula behind Japanese hip-hop’s racism. Social Identities, 22(2), 210–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Thompson, K. C. (2001). Watching the Stormfront: White nationalists and the building of community in cyberspace. Social Analysis: The International Journal of Social and Cultural Practice, 45(1), 32–52.Google Scholar
  47. Washington Post. (2012). How America and hip-hop failed each other. Retrieved from
  48. Wendel, W. B. (2002). Certain fundamental truths: A dialectic on negative and positive liberty in hate-speech cases. Law and Contemporary Problems, 65(2), 33–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. West, C. (1994). Race matters. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  50. Yousman, B. (2003). Blackophilia and Blackophobia: White youth, the consumption of rap music, and white supremacy. Communication Theory, 13(4), 366–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Future University HakodateHakodate, HokkaidoJapan

Personalised recommendations