Opportunity- and Necessity-Driven Self-Employment Among Older People in Finland



To date, few empirical studies have attempted to highlight the impact of the socio-economic characteristics of older entrepreneurs according to whether they are driven by necessity or opportunity. Tervo and Haapanen contribute to the economics of ageing by showing that opportunity- and necessity-driven senior entrepreneurs differ in terms of socio-economic characteristics. This chapter utilizes a longitudinal data set from Finland. Individuals aged between 55 and 70 entering self-employment are grouped in terms of pull and push motivations. Profiles of entrepreneurs are developed using personal, family, and environmental characteristics. The results show that opportunity-driven older self-employed workers are more likely to be highly educated males, whereas necessity-driven older self-employed workers are often less educated females and individuals who live in rural areas.


Self-employment Senior entrepreneurship Push and pull motivations Opportunity Necessity 



This study is supported by the Strategic Research Council (SRC) at the Academy of Finland (project no. 303552).


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jyväskylä University School of Business and Economics, University of JyvaskylaJyvaskylaFinland

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