Improving Pain Management in Maxillofacial Cosmetic Surgical Procedures

  • Marwan S. RizkEmail author
  • Samar S. Bahjah
  • Chakib M. Ayoub


Pain still ranks among the highest patient as well as surgeon concerns for unwanted surgical outcomes. Thus, pain management plays a major role in patient satisfaction and improving our patients’ safety. This chapter will review the pathogenesis of pain. Strategies for pain control will be addressed. Additionally, various pain disorders which can affect our patients’ postoperative course will be discussed.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marwan S. Rizk
    • 1
    Email author
  • Samar S. Bahjah
    • 1
  • Chakib M. Ayoub
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyAmerican University of Beirut Medical CenterBeirutLebanon
  2. 2.Duke University School of MedicineDurhamUSA

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