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Phosphorus Sorption Materials (PSMs): The Heart of the Phosphorus Removal Structure

  • Chad J. Penn
  • James M. Bowen
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter is dedicated to the most important component of the P removal structure: PSMs, which are the component that actually removes the dissolved P. Phosphorus sorption materials are presented in great detail and explained. Many of these materials are by-products from various industries such as drinking water treatment, steel production, acid mine reclamation, energy generation, metal casting, wall board production, and bauxite mining. Other PSMs are manufactured for the sole purpose of removing dissolved P. The chemical and physical properties relevant to P removal structures are discussed in the context of choosing a suitable PSM for the situation, with a general characterization of several PSMs presented. This will include a discussion of the main mechanisms of P removal by PSMs and the implications of those mechanisms on design. Specifically, the influence of retention time and inflow P concentration on P removal by different types of PSMs are discussed in detail. The reader will clearly understand how the retention time and the inflow P concentration can have a dramatic impact on the design of a site-specific P removal structure. The common “paradox of PSMs” is presented: usually PSMs with the greatest ability to adsorb P tend to conduct water poorly (i.e. low hydraulic conductivity), and vice versa. While there are some exceptions to this, the implications of this issue are explained with several solutions provided. In addition to a general guide in choosing a suitable PSM, the chapter concludes with a discussion on safety considerations of PSMs that originate as by-products, and the need to screen some materials for safety. Recommendations and thresholds for PSM safety screening are provided.

Keywords

Phosphorus sorption material PSM Phosphorus sorption mechanisms Retention time Steel slag Drinking water treatment residuals Calcium phosphate precipitation Ligand exchange Phosphorus sorption material regeneration Slag treatment Phosphorus sorption material safety 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chad J. Penn
    • 1
  • James M. Bowen
    • 2
  1. 1.USDA Agricultural Research ServiceNational Soil Erosion Research LaboratoryWest LafayetteUSA
  2. 2.University of KentuckyLexingtonUSA

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