• Dallas N. LittleEmail author
  • David H. Allen
  • Amit Bhasin


Building on Chap.  2, this chapter focuses on aggregates, which is another constituent of asphalt mixtures. This chapter presents an overview of several different attributes of aggregates that are important for designing a durable asphalt mixture as well as a brief description of the methods that can be used to quantify each attribute. These attributes include the sources and mineral composition, size, gradation, cleanliness, toughness, hardness, shape, angularity, and texture. Emphasis is placed upon the properties to asphalt mixture and the relevance of these properties to asphalt mixture performance. Details of the test methods to measure various properties are avoided by design. Adequate references are provided throughout the text for a more detailed description of specific test methods.


  1. AASHTO. (1997). T 19-93-Standard test method for unit weight and voids in aggregate.Google Scholar
  2. Ashtiani, R.S. (2010). Anisotropic characterization and performance prediction of chemically and hydraulically bounded pavement foundations.Google Scholar
  3. Ashtiani, R. & Little, D.N. (2010). Methodology for designing aggregate mixtures for base courses, Final Report ICAR/508, International Center for Aggregate Research.Google Scholar
  4. Association, N.L. (2003). How to add hydrated lime to asphalt: An overview of current methods.Google Scholar
  5. Bell, F. G. (1996). Lime stabilization of clay minerals and soils. Engineering Geology, 42, 223–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chowdhury, A., Button, J.W., & Bhasin, A. (2006). Fibers from recycled tire as reinforcement in hot mix asphalt, Report SWUTC/06/167453-1 for US Department of Transportation.Google Scholar
  7. Eades, J.L., & Grim, R.E. (1960). Reactions of hydrated lime with pure clay minerals. Highway Research Record, 262.Google Scholar
  8. Fuller, W. B., & Thompson, S. E. (1907). The laws of proportioning concrete. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 59, 67–172.Google Scholar
  9. Gatchalian, D., Masad, E., Chowdhury, A. & Little, D. (2006). Characterization of aggregate resistance to degradation in stone matrix asphalt mixtures, Final Report ICAR/204-1F, International Center for Aggregate Research.Google Scholar
  10. Kim, Y. R., Little, D. N., & Lytton, R. L. (2004). Effect of moisture damage on material properties and fatigue resistance of asphalt mixtures. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1891, 48–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kohata, Y., et al. (1997). Modelling the non-linear deformation properties of stiff geomaterials. Géotechnique, 47(3), 563–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lee, C.J., Pan, C., & White, T.D. (1999). Review of fine aggregate angularity requirements in superpave. Journal of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists, 68.Google Scholar
  13. Lesueur, D., & Little, D. N. (1999). Effect of hydrated lime on rheology, fracture, and aging of bitumen. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1661, 93–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Little, D.N. (1995). Handbook for stabilization of pavement subgrades and base courses with lime. Lime Association of Texas.Google Scholar
  15. Little, D.N., & Epps, J.A. (2001). The benefits of hydrated lime in hot mix asphalt. National Lime Association.Google Scholar
  16. Little, D. N., & Petersen, J. C. (2005). Unique effects of hydrated lime on the performance related properties of asphalt cements: Physical and chemical interactions revisited. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering (ASCE), 17(2), 207–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Little, D.N., & Bhasin, A. (2006). Using surface energy measurements to select materials for asphalt pavements, NCHRP Web Only Document 104.Google Scholar
  18. Mahmoud, E. M. (2007). Development of experimental methods for the evaluation of aggregate resistance to polishing, abrasion, and breakage (Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University).Google Scholar
  19. Masad, E. et al. (2005). Test methods for characterizing aggregate shape, texture, and angularity.Google Scholar
  20. Masad, E. A., et al. (2008). Predicting asphalt mixture skid resistance based on aggregate characteristics. TX: College Station.Google Scholar
  21. Masad, E., Rezaei, A., Chowdhury, A. & Harris, P. (2009). Predicting asphalt mixture skid resistance based on aggregate characteristics, Final Report Number FHWA/TX-09/0-5627-1, Texas Transportation Institute.Google Scholar
  22. Masad, S.A. (2004). Sensitivity analysis of flexible pavement response and AASHTO 2002 design guide for properties of unbound layers. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University. Retrieved June 20, 2015, from
  23. Plancher, H., Green, E.L., & Petersen, J.C. (1976). Reduction of oxidative hardening of asphalt by treatment with hydrated lime—A mechanistic study. In Proceedings of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists (vol. 45, pp. 1–24).Google Scholar
  24. Rogers, C.A., Bailey, M.L., & Price, B. (1991). Micro-deval test for evaluating the quality of fine aggregate for concrete and asphalt.Google Scholar
  25. Sung Do, H., Hee Mun, P., & Suk keun, R. (2008). A study on engineering characteristics of asphalt concrete using filler with recycled waste lime. Waste Management, 28(1), 191–199.Google Scholar
  26. Tatsuoka, F., et al. (1999). Non-linear resilient behaviour of unbound granular materials predicted by the cross-anisotropic hypo-quasi-elasticity model. In G. Correia (Ed.), Unbound granular materials—Laboratory testing, in-situ testing and modelling (pp. 197–206). Rotterdam: Balkema.Google Scholar
  27. Underwood, B. S. (2011). Multiscale constitutive modeling of asphalt concrete. Raleigh, North Carolina: North Carolina State University.Google Scholar
  28. Vavrik, W. R., et al. (2001). The Bailey method of gradation evaluation: The influence of aggregate gradation and packing characteristics on voids in the mineral aggregate. Journal of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists, 70, 132–175.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dallas N. Little
    • 1
    Email author
  • David H. Allen
    • 1
  • Amit Bhasin
    • 2
  1. 1.Texas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  2. 2.The University of Texas at AustinAustinUSA

Personalised recommendations