Material Deprivation, Health and Well-Being in Older Age: A Comparative Analysis of 14 European Countries
A large number of studies have documented an influence on health of traditional social stratification variables such as income, educational level, and social class. In this perspective, a key dimension is economic resources that we know to be an excellent predictor of health conditions. Unfortunately, despite remarkable economic progress in the twentieth century, European countries still find parts of the population falling behind considerably in quality of life. To complicate matters further, the worst financial crisis since the end of Second World War began in 2008. Crises can have serious social impact, in particular on the most vulnerable individuals of the society (the elderly, young, women), who have less resources to cope with the consequences of rising of prices, eroding savings and asset values, loss of jobs and reduction in core public services such as social welfare, health care and education. In this framework, the aim of this study is to describe the relationship between economic resources, approximate by material deprivation measure, and health and health inequalities among individuals aged 50 and over in 14 European countries, controlling for country-level heterogeneity. In particular, we are interested to analyze the association between households’ economic conditions and three health outcomes: a) poor health (based on self-assessment of health, SAH); b) symptoms of depression based on the EURO-D scale; and c) index for quality of life and well-being, based on CASP-12 measure. We confirm that material deprivation plays a key role in determining the health and well-being conditions of Europe’s elderly population.
- Adena, M., and M. Myck. 2013. Poverty and Transitions in Key Areas of Quality of Life. In Active Ageing and Solidarity Between Generations in Europe e First Results from SHARE After the Economic Crisis, ed. A. Borsch-Supan, M. Brandt, H. Litwin, and G. Weber. Berlin: De Gruyter.Google Scholar
- Adena, M., and M. Myck. 2014. Poverty and Transitions in Health in Later Life. Social Science & Medicine 116: 202–210.Google Scholar
- Adena, M., M. Myck, and M. Oczkowska. 2015. Material Deprivation Items in SHARE Wave 5 Data: A Contribution to a Better Understanding of Differences in Material Conditions in Later Life. In Ageing in Europe-Supporting Policies for an Inclusive Society, ed. A. Börsch-Supan, T. Kneip, H. Litwin, M. Myck, and G. Weber, 25–37. Berlin: De Gruyter.Google Scholar
- Atkinson, A.B., L. Rainwater, and T.M. Smeeding. 1995. Income Distribution in OECD Countries: Evidence from Luxembourg Income Study. OECD Social Policy Studies 18. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
- Bertoni, M., D. Cavapozzi, M. Celidoni, and E. Trevisan. 2015. Development and Validation of a Material Deprivation Index. In Ageing in Europe-Supporting Policies for an Inclusive Society, ed. A. Börsch-Supan, T. Kneip, H. Litwin, M. Myck, and G. Weber, 57–65. Berlin: De Gruyter.Google Scholar
- Boarini, R., and M. Mira d’Ercole. 2006. Measures of Material Deprivation in OECD Countries. OECD Social Employment and Migration (Working papers n. 37), Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
- Bryan, M.L., and S.P. Jenkins. 2013. Regression Analysis of Country Effects Using Multilevel Data: A Cautionary Tale. ISER 2013e2014 (Working paper series).Google Scholar
- Cappellari, L., and S.P. Jenkins. 2007. Summarizing Multiple Deprivation Indicators. In Inequality and Poverty Re-Examined, ed. S.P. Jenkins, and J. Micklewright. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Dahl, E., and G.E. Birkelund. 1997. Health Inequalities in Later Life in a Social Democratic Welfare State. Social Science & Medicine 44 (6): 871–881.Google Scholar
- Dalstra, J.A.A., A.E. Kunst, and J.P. Mackenbach. 2005. A Comparative Appraisal of the Relationship of Education, Income and Housing Tenure with Less than Good Health Among the Elderly in Europe. Social Science & Medicine 8: 2046–2060. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.09.001.
- Diderichsen, F., T. Evans, and M. Whitehead. 2001. The Social Basis of Disparities in Health. In Challenging Inequities in Health, ed. T. Evans, et al. New York: Oxford UP.Google Scholar
- Eikemo, T.A., M. Huisman, C. Bambra, and A.E. Kunst. 2008. Health Inequalities According to Educational Level in Different Welfare Regimes: A Comparison of 23 European Countries. Sociology of Health Illness. 30(4): 565e582. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9566.2007.01073.x.
- Esping-Andersen, G., 1990. The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. London: Polity Press. Available from: http://ess.nsd.uib.no.
- EUROSTAT. 2016. Population Structure and Ageing. Statistics Explained. Accessed October 18, 2016. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statisticsexplained/.
- Forster, M., and M. Mira d’Ercole. 2005. Income Distribution and Poverty in OECD Countries in the Second Half of the 1990s. OECD Social, Employment and Migration (Working paper 22), Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
- Fusco, A., A.C. Guio, and E. Marlier. 2010. Characterising the Income Poor and the Materially Deprived in European Countries. In Income and Living Conditions in Europe, ed. A.B. Atkinson, and E. Marlier. Luxembourg: Eurostat Statistical books.Google Scholar
- Huisman, M., A. Kunst, and J. Mackenbach. 2003. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Morbidity Among the Elderly: A European Overview. Social Science & Medicine 57 (5): 861–873.Google Scholar
- Layte, R., and C.T. Whelan . 2002. Moving In and Out of Poverty: The Impact of Welfare Regimes on Poverty Dynamics in the EU. EPAG (Working Paper 2002–2030), Colchester: University of Essex.Google Scholar
- Malter, F., and A. Börsch-Supan (eds.). 2015. SHARE Wave 5: Innovations & Methodology. MEA, Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy: Munich.Google Scholar
- Montesanto, A., S. Dato, D. Bellizzi, G. Rose, and G. Passarino. 2012. Epidemiological, Genetic and Epigenetic Aspects of the Research on Healthy Ageing and Longevity. Immunity & Ageing 9: 6.Google Scholar
- Moring, K. 2012. The Fixed Effect as an Alternative to Multilevel Analysis for Cross-national Analyses. GK Soclife (Working Papers Series).Google Scholar
- Nolan, B., and C.T. Whelan. 2007. On the Multidimensionality of Poverty and Social Exclusion. In Inequality and Poverty Re-Examined, ed. S.P. Jenkins, and J. Micklewright. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Otker-Robe I., and A.M. Podpiera. 2013. The Social Impact of Financial Crises. Evidence from the Global Financial Crisis. The World Bank Policy (Working Paper 6703).Google Scholar
- SHARE. 2015. Release Guide 1.0.0 Wave 5. Munich: MEA, Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy.Google Scholar
- Solar, O., and A. Irwin. 2010. A conceptual Framework for Action on the Social Determinants of Health. Social Determinants of Health Discussion Paper 2 (Policy and Practice). Geneva, Switzerland: WHO. Retrived by: http://www.who.int/sdhconference/resources/ConceptualframeworkforactiononSDH_eng.pdf.
- Townsend, P. 1979. Poverty in United Kingdom. Harmondsworth: Penguin.Google Scholar
- United Nations. 2011. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division: World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision, Highlights and Advance Tables. 2011, ESA/P/WP.220.Google Scholar
- Whitehead, M., B. Burström, and F. Diderichsen. 2000. Social policies and the pathways to inequalities in health: A comparative analysis of lone mothers in Britain and Sweden. Social Science & Medicine 50: 255–270.Google Scholar
- WHO. 2012. Good health adds life to years. Geneva and Switzerland: WHO.Google Scholar
- Wilkinson, R.G., and M. Marmot. 2003. Social determinants of health: The solid facts (2nd edn.). Retrieved from http://www.euro.who.int/document/e81384.pdf.