Community-Based Adaptation to Climate Change in Egypt—Status Quo and Future Policies

  • Paulina FroehlichEmail author
  • Mohammad Al-Saidi


For many of Egypt’s communities, climate change represent an increasing threat to development and livelihoods that remains underrepresented in terms of policies and strategies. The vulnerability of communities in agricultural land, coastal zones and urban spaces is investigated in this study using recent literature. This study aims at identifying policy options for community-based adaptation (CBA) to climate change in Egypt. Using key informants interviews and comparisons to similar case studies, it outlines three alternative policies sets: information-based, finance-based and capacity-based. It later introduces the obstacles and advantages of introducing the different CBA policies which represent potential focus areas of future climate change policy reforms. Further, it identifies critical factors for the success of the CBA approach like trust among all stakeholders and a clear allocation of responsibilities among governmental institutions.


Community-based adaptation Climate change in Egypt Policy analysis Sea-level rise Climate policy 


  1. Agrawala, S. (2004). Development And Climate Change In Egypt: Focus On Coastal Resources And The Nile, OECD - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris.Google Scholar
  2. Ambandi M., Nicholles N. (2013). POLICY BRIEF: Climate Change - Why Community Based Adaptation Makes Economic Sense, CARE - Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere, nef - new economics foundation, (Last Accessed Februraby 2016).
  3. Ayers J., Forsyth T. (2009). Community based adaptation to climate Change, Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 51 (4), p. 22–31.Google Scholar
  4. Buckner S., Buckner E. (2015). Post-Revolution Egypt: The Roy Adaptation Model in Community, Sage Journals, Nur Sci Q October 2015, F28, p. 300–307.Google Scholar
  5. Borrini-Feyerabend G., Pimbert M., Farvar M. T., Kothari A., Renard Y., Jaireth H. and Warren P. (2007). Sharing power: A global guide to collaborative management of natural resources, London.Google Scholar
  6. CGIAR - Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, CARE - Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere, ENDA - Energie, Environnement et Développement (2012). Community-based adaptation: an approach to build resilience and sustainable development in West Africa, Communiqué Policy Brief, Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security.Google Scholar
  7. Christensen, K., Raihan S., Ahsan R., Uddin A. M. N., Saleh Ahmed C., and Wright H. (2012). Financing Local Adaptation: Ensuring Access for the Climate Vulnerable in Bangladesh, ActionAid Bangladesh, Action Research for Community Adaptation in Bangladesh, Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies, and International Centre for Climate Change and Development, Dhaka.Google Scholar
  8. EEAA (2010). National Environmental, Economic and Development Study (NEEDS) for Climate Change, Cairo, (Last Accessed January 2016).
  9. The Egyptian Cabinet and UNDP (2011). United Nations Development Programme, Egypt’s National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change And Disaster Risk Reduction, (Last Accessed Februrary 2016).
  10. ESCWA - Economic And Social Commission For Western Asia (2013). Guide On Climate Change Negotiations For Representatives And Negotiators From Arab Countries, New York (Last Accessed January 2016).
  11. Fenton, A. (2011). Community-based adaptation and microfinance: a win-win partnership? Guest post on IIED - International Institute for Environment and Development, (Lasst Accessed February 2016).
  12. Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (2015). Intended Nationally Determined Contributions, As per United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change, in March 2016 (Last Accessed January 2016).
  13. Hassan G.F., Hefnawi A., Refaie M. (2011). Efficiency of participation in planning, In: Alexandria Engineering Journal, Vol.50, p. 203–2012, Alexandria.Google Scholar
  14. IUCN (2014). International Union for Conservation of Nature - Regional Office for West Asia, A Guiding Toolkit for Increasing Climate, (Last Accessed February 2016).
  15. IPCC (2007). Climate Change 2007 - Impact, Adaptation and Vulnerability. (Last Accessed April 2017).
  16. IPCC (2013). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Data Distribution Center, (Last Accessed January 2016).
  17. Jobbins G. (2012). Climate Change and Water in the Arab Region. Mapping Knowledge and Institutions, Regional Technical Cooperation Programme, Adaptation to Climate Change in the Water sector in the MENA Region (ACCWam), GIZ, Cairo.Google Scholar
  18. King S. (2014). COMMUNITY-BASED ADAPTATION IN PRACTICE: A global overview of CARE International’s practice of Community-Based Adaptation (CBA) to climate change, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  19. Morocco (2015). Intended Nationally Determined Contributions, – As per United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change, (Last Accessed March 2016).
  20. PDP (2015). Participatory Development Project in Urban Areas, GIZ, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit, Cairo, (Last Accessed Feburary 2016).
  21. Reid H., Canon T., Berger R., Alam M. and Milligan A. (2009). Participatory Learning and Action. Communitybased adaptation to climate change, Nottingham.Google Scholar
  22. Smith J. Deck L., McCarl B., Kirshen P., Malley J. and Abdrabo M. (2013). Potential impacts of climate change on the Egyptian Economy. UNDP - United Nations Development Programme, Cairo.Google Scholar
  23. Sowers J. (2013). Environmental Politics in Egypt, Activists, Experts and the State, Routledge Studies in Middle Eastern Politics, Oxon.Google Scholar
  24. Sterman D. (2009). Climate Change in Egypt: Rising Sea Level, Dwindling Water Supplies, International Action, Climate Institute, Washington DC. (Last Accessed January 2016).
  25. Taha, H. (2016). Militarisation and security challenges in Egypt, In: Hokayem, E., Taha, H. Egypt After the Spring: Revolt and Reaction, the Adelphi Series, Vol 55 Issue 453–454, p. 177–200, London.Google Scholar
  26. UN (2015) United Nations. Sustainable Development Goals, (Last Accessed January 2016).
  27. UNDP (2015) United Nations Development Programme. Sustainable Development Goals, About Egypt: (Last Accessed January 2016).
  28. UNISDR (2009) United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction. Terminology, (Last Accessed May 2016).
  29. Verner D. (2012). Adaptation to a Changing Climate in the Arab Countries: A Case for Adaptation Governance and Leadership in Building Climate Resilience. The World Bank, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  30. Vincent K., Wanjiru L., Aubry A., Mershon A., Nyandiga C., Cull T., and Banda K. (2012) Gender, Climate Change and Community-Based Adaptation, UNDP - United Nations Development Programme. New York.Google Scholar
  31. Wodon Q., Burger N., Grant A. and Liverani, A. (2014). Climate Change, Migration, and Adaptation in the MENA Region, MPRA Paper No. 56927, The World Bank, Washington DC.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Technology and Resources Management in the Tropics and Subtropics (ITT)Cologne University of Applied ScienceCologneGermany
  2. 2.Center for Sustainable Development, College of Arts and SciencesQatar UniversityDohaQatar

Personalised recommendations