Adaptations to Climate Change in Bangladesh: Development of a National Inventory
- 932 Downloads
Bangladesh is highly vulnerable to climate change impacts and adaptation is the only viable option to deal with this phenomenon. This paper provides an overview of the climate change adaptations in the country which includes spatial and sectoral distribution, aims and timings, stresses and shocks addressed, etc. An inventory was prepared with documented climate change adaptations in Bangladesh. A first cut analysis was performed based on the inventory. The analyses found that most of the adaptations took place in coastal districts. Disaster risk reduction, water resource management, infrastructure and agriculture are the major sectors of adaptations in terms of number. Government of Bangladesh was the major provider (87%) followed by non-governmental organizations (11%). Chronic stresses like salinity, waterlogging, drought, etc., were the focus of majority of adaptations while sudden shocks like cyclone and large flood were addressed in community level as well as national level. Major trait has been reactive than anticipatory. Information on specific stress/shock factors addressed and the spatial/population coverage of adaptations were often lacking due to inadequate documentation. The inventory is a step towards improved documentation aiding evaluation of practiced adaptations that may inspire policy makers to devise effective adaptation measures to combat climate change in Bangladesh.
KeywordsClimate change Adaptation Inventory Community Chronic stresses Sudden shocks
This work is carried out under the ‘Deltas, vulnerability and Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation (DECCMA)’ project under the Collaborative Adaptation Research Initiative in Africa and Asia (CARIAA) program with financial support from the UK Government’s Department for International Development (DFID) and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada. The views expressed in this work are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of DFID and IDRC or its Boards of Governors.
- Adger, W. N., Arnell, N. W. and Tompkins, E. L. (2005). Successful adaptation to climate change across scales, Global Environmental Change, 15: 77–86, DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2004.12.005.
- Ahmed, A. U. (2006). Bangladesh Climate Change Impacts and Vulnerability: A Synthesis, July 2006, Climate Change Cell, Department Of Environment, Component 4b, Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh, ISBN: 984-32-3467-7.Google Scholar
- Ali, A. (1999). Climate change impacts and adaptation assessment in Bangladesh, Climate Research, 12: 109–116.Google Scholar
- Asia Foundation (2012). A Situation Analysis of Climate Change Adaptation Initiatives in Bangladesh, September 2012, Asia Foundation, Dhaka-1206, Bangladesh.Google Scholar
- Ayers, J., Huq, S., Wright, H., Faisal, A. M. and Hussain, S. T. (2014). Mainstreaming climate change adaptation into development in Bangladesh, Climate and Development, 6(4): 293–305, DOI: 10.1080/17565529.2014.977761.
- Baigini, B., Bierbaum, R., Stults, M., Dobardzic, S. and McNeeley, S. M. (2014). A typology of adaptation actions: A global look at climate adaptation actions through the Global Environment Facility, Global Environmental Change, 25: 97–108, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.01.003.
- Bangladesh (1995). Bangladesh - National environment management action plan (NEMAP), Dhaka, Bangladesh: NEMAP Secretariat, Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh, accessed at: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/329001468741610744/Bangladesh-National-environment-management-action-plan-NEMAP.
- Dev, P. K. (2013). Water logging through soil-less agriculture as a climate resilient adaptation option, In: Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management, Filho, W.L. (ed.), pp. 681–692, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, eBook ISBN: 978-3-642-31110-9, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-31110-9.
- Faruque, H. S. M. and Ali, M. L. (2005). Climate Change and Water Resources Management in Bangladesh, In: Climate Change and Water Resources in South Asia, Mirza, M. Q. and Ahmad, M. Q. (eds.), pp. 231–254, Taylor and Francis, London, UK, eBook ISBN: 978-0-203-02077-7, DOI: 10.1201/9780203020777.ch9.
- Haq, I., Omar, M.A.T., Zahra, Q.A. and Jahan, I., 2015. Evaluations of Adaptation Policies in GBM Delta of Bangladesh. DECCMA Working Paper, Deltas, Vulnerability and Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation, IDRC Project Number 107642. Available online at: www.deccma.com, accessed on 25 August, 2016.
- Haque, K. N. H., Chowdhury, F. A. and Khatun, K. R. (2015). Participatory environmental governance and climate change adaptation: mainstreaming of tidal river management in south-west Bangladesh, In: Land and Disaster Management Strategies in Asia, Ha, H. (ed.), pp. 189–208, Springer India, eBook ISBN: 978-81-322-1976-7, DOI: 10.1007/978-81-322-1976-7.
- IPCC (2014). Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, Pachauri, R.K. and Meyer L.A. (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 151 pp.Google Scholar
- MoEF (2009). Bangladesh Climate Chnage Strategy and Action Plan 2009, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Xviii + 76 pp, accessed at: http://www.climatechangecell.org.bd/Documents/climate_change_strategy2009.pdf.
- Mondal, M. S., Rahman, M. R., Mukherjee, N., Huq, H. and Rahman, R. (2015). Hydro-climatic hazards for crop and cropping system in the chars of the Jamuna River and potential adaptation options, Natural Hazards, 76(3): 1431–1455, DOI: 10.1007/s11069-014-1424-9.
- National Adaptation Program of Action (2005). Ministry of Environment and Forests, November 2005, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh, accessed at: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/napa/ban01.pdf.
- National Plan for Disaster Management (2010–2015). Disaster Management Bureau, Disaster Management & Relief Division, April 2010, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh, accessed at: http://www.lcgbangladesh.org/derweb/doc/Final%20Version%20Nataional%20Plan%20for%20Disaster%20(2010-2015).pdf.
- National Water Policy (1999). Ministry of Water Resources, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh, accessed at: http://faolex.fao.org/docs/pdf/bgd146075.pdf.
- Rawlani, A. K. and Sovacool, B. K. (2011). Building responsiveness to climate change through community based adaptation in Bangladesh, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 16(8): 845–863, DOI: 10.1007/s11027-011-9298-6.
- Rosenzweig, C., G. Casassa, D. J. Karoly, A. Imeson, C. Liu, A. Menzel, S. Rawlins, T. L. Root, B. Seguin, P. Tryjanowski (2007). Assessment of observed changes and responses in natural and managed systems. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden and C. E. Hanson, (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 79–131.Google Scholar
- Saha, D., Hossain, M. S. S., Mondal, M. S. and Rahman, R. (2016). Agricultural Adaptation Practices in Coastal Bangladesh: Response to Climate Change Impacts, Journal of Modern Science and Technology, 4(1): 63–74, ISSN: 2201-6686.Google Scholar
- Tompkins, E. L., Adger, W. N., Boyd, E., Nicholson-Cole, S., Whitehead, K. and Arnel, N. (2010). Observed adaptation to climate change: UK evidence of transition to a well-adapting society, Global Environmental Change, 20: 627–635, DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2010.05.001.
- Tompkins, E.L., Boyd, E., Nicholson-Cole, S. Weatherhead, K., Arnell, N., Adger, W.N. (2009). An Inventory of Adaptation to climate change in the UK: challenges and findings. Tyndall Working Paper 135, July 2009. Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, UK.Google Scholar
- The World Bank (2011). The cost of adapting to extreme weather events in a changing climate, Bangladesh Development Series, Paper No. 28, The World Bank, December 2011, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh.Google Scholar