Ethical and Social Justice Foundations of Policy and Policy Research Related to School-Based Counseling

  • Vivian V. Lee


This chapter presents a paradigm that examines and integrates the ethical and social justice underpinnings of policy research for school-based counseling. The paradigm positions school-based counseling as a contributor to the well-being of children as global citizens as part of the Sustainable Development Goals and more specifically Education 2030. The paradigm examines ethical and social justice perspectives relative to the practices and belief system of the researcher and evaluator, the cultural competence needed to effectively engage diverse global contexts, international perspectives on research ethics that impact children, methods of entering the policy process, and directions for the future of school-based counseling that support the well-being of children as global citizens in peaceful and sustainable societies.



The author wishes to thank and acknowledge George Davy Vera for his contributions.


  1. Adams, B., & Judd, K. (2016, March 18). 2030 agenda and the SDGs: Indicator framework, monitoring and reporting. Global Policy Forum, 10. Retrieved from Global Policy Forum.Google Scholar
  2. American Counseling Association. (2014). ACA code of ethics. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.Google Scholar
  3. American Evaluation Association. (2004). American evaluation association guiding principles for evaluators. Washington, DC: American Evaluation Association.Google Scholar
  4. Asian Professional Counselling Association. (2008). Code of conduct, Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  5. Boddy, J. (2014). Research across cultures, within countries: Hidden ethics tensions in research with children and families? Progress in Development Studies, 14(1), 91–103. doi: 10.1177/1464993413490477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bowen, M. L., & Tillman, A. S. (2014). Developing culturally responsive surveys: Lessons in development, implementation, and analysis from Brazil’s African descent communities. American Journal of Evaluation, 36(1), 25–41. doi: 10.1177/1098214014539831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. British Association for Counselling & Psychotherapy. (2016). Ethical framework for the counselling professions. Lutterworth, Leicestershire, UK: Author.Google Scholar
  8. Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association. (2007). Code of ethics. Ottawa, ON, Canada: CCPA.Google Scholar
  9. Chapman, S., & Schwartz, J. P. (2012). Rejecting the null: Research and social justice means asking different questions. Counseling and Values, 57(1), 24–30. doi: 10.1002/j.2161-007x.2012.00004.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cross, T. L., Bazron, B. J., Dennis, K. W., & Isaacs, M. R. (1989). Towards a culturally competent system of care: A monograph on effective services for minority children who are severely emotionally disturbed (pp. 1–90). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Child Development Center.Google Scholar
  11. Danso, R. (2015). An integrated framework of critical cultural competence and anti-oppressive practice for social justice social work research. Qualitative Social Work, 14(4), 572–588. doi: 10.1177/1473325014558664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dunaway, K. E., Morrow, J. A., & Porter, B. E. (2012). Development and validation of the cultural competence of program evaluators (CCPE) self-report scale. American Journal of Evaluation, 33(4), 496–514. doi: 10.1177/1098214012445280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Education 2030: Incheon declaration and framework for action towards inclusive and equitable quality education and lifelong learning for all. (2015). Retrieved from
  14. Elliott, H., & Popay, J. (2000). How are policy makers using evidence? Models of research utilisation and local NHS policy making. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 54(6), 461–468. doi: 10.1136/jech.54.6.461.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. European University Institute. (2013). Code of Ethics in Academic Research. San Domenico di Fiesole, Italy. IUE 80/2/13 (CA 79) rev. 2. Google Scholar
  16. Fassinger, R., & Morrow, S. L. (2013). Toward best practices in quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-method research: A social justice perspective. Journal for Social Action in Counseling and Psychology, 5(2), 69–83.Google Scholar
  17. Felzmann, H. (2009). Ethical issues in school-based research. Research Ethics Review, 5(3), 104–109. doi: 10.1177/174701610900500304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Graham, A., Powell, M. A., Taylor, N., Anderson, D., & Fitzgerald, R. (2013). Ethical research involving children. Florence, Italy: UNICEF Office of Research.Google Scholar
  19. Graham, A. P., Phelps, R. A., Nhung, H. T., & Geeves, R. (2012). Researching with children in Vietnam: Cultural, methodological and ethical considerations. Qualitative Research, 14(1), 37–60. doi: 10.1177/1468794112455038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Harris, B. (2013). Scoping report: International school-based counseling. Retrieved from
  21. Heimans, S. (2012). Education policy, practice, and power. Educational Policy, 26(3), 369–393. doi: 10.1177/0895904810397338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kitchner, K. S. (1984). Intuition, critical evaluation, and ethical principles: The foundation for ethical decisions in counseling psychology. The Counseling Psychologist, 12, 43–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lee, V. V., & Carey, J. (in press). Ensuring equitable and inclusive global education: Transformational perspectives for global school-based counseling. In C. C. Lee (Ed.), Counseling for social justice (3rd ed.). Alexandria, VA: ACA.Google Scholar
  24. Lee, M. A., Smith, T. J., & Henry, R. G. (2013). Power politics: Advocacy to activism in social justice counseling. Journal for Social Action in Counseling and Psychology, 5(3), 70–94.Google Scholar
  25. Levinson, B. A., Sutton, M., & Winstead, T. (2009). Education policy as a practice of power: Theoretical tools, ethnographic methods, democratic options. Educational Policy, 23(6), 767–795. doi: 10.1177/0895904808320676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lomas, J. (2000). Connecting research and policy. Canadian Journal of Policy Research, 1(1), 140–144.Google Scholar
  27. Lutzen, K., & Silva, A. B. (1996). The role of virtue ethics in psychiatric nursing. Nursing Ethics, 3(3), 202–211. doi: 10.1177/096973309600300303.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Maiese, M. (2013). Principles of justice and fairness. Retrieved from
  29. Martin, I., Lauterbach, A., & Carey, J. C. (2015). The identification of factors affecting the development and practice of school-based counseling in different national contexts: A Grounded Theory study using a worldwide sample of descriptive journal articles and book chapters. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling, 37, 305–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Meara, N. M., Schmidt, L. D., & Day, J. D. (1996). Principles and virtues: A foundation for ethical decisions, policies, and character. The Counseling Psychologist, 24(1), 4–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Meloni, F., Vanthuyne, K., & Rousseau, C. (2015). Towards a relational ethics: Rethinking ethics, agency and dependency in research with children and youth. Anthropological Theory, 15(1), 106–123. doi: 10.1177/1463499614565945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mertens, D. M. (2009). Transformative research and evaluation. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  33. Mertens, D. M. (2011). Integrating pathways: Research and policy making in pursuit of social justice. International Review of Qualitative Research, 4(2), 149–169.Google Scholar
  34. Morrow, V. (2013). Practical ethics in social research with children and families in young lives: A longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, Andhra Pradesh (India), Peru and Vietnam. Methodological Innovations Online, 8(2), 21–35. doi: 10.4256/mio.2013.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. New Zealand Association of Counsellors. (2014). Code of ethics: A framework for ethical practice, Wellington, NZ.Google Scholar
  36. Nilson, C. (2016). A journey toward cultural competence: The role of researcher reflexivity in indigenous research. Journal of Transcultural Nursing. doi: 10.1177/1043659616642825.
  37. Ortiz, D. V., Sosulski, M. R., & Sherwood, D. A. (2012). Competently mixing: Does a clinical practice cultural competence framework fit in mixed methods research? Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 6(4), 348–363. doi: 10.1177/1558689812445196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Overseas Development Institute. (2004). Briefing paper: Bridging research and policy in international development: An analytical and practical framework, London, UK.Google Scholar
  39. Pederson, P. B. (1997). The cultural context of American Counseling Association Code of Ethics. Journal of Counseling and Development, 76, 23–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Phelan, S. K., & Kinsella, E. A. (2013). Picture this . . . Safety, dignity, and voice – Ethical research with children: Practical considerations for the reflexive researcher. Qualitative Inquiry, 19(2), 81–90. doi: 10.1177/1077800412462987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ponterotto, J. G., Mathew, J. T., & Raughley, B. (2013). The value of mixed methods designs to social justice research in counseling and psychology. Journal for Social Action in Counseling and Psychology, 5(2), 42–68.Google Scholar
  42. Ratts, M. J., Singh, A. A., Nassar-Mcmillan, S., Butler, S. K., & Mccullough, J. R. (2016). Multicultural and social justice counseling competencies: Guidelines for the counseling profession. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 44(1), 28–48. doi: 10.1002/jmcd.12035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Remley Jr., T. P., & Herlihy, B. (2010). Ethical, legal, and professional issues in counseling (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.Google Scholar
  44. SenGupta, S., Hopson, R., & Thompson-Robinson, M. (2004). Cultural competence in evaluation: An overview. New Directions for Evaluation, (102), 5–19. doi:  10.1002/ev.112
  45. Singapore Association for Counselling. (2015). Code of ethics. Retrieved: 19 May 2017.
  46. Sterling, S. (2014). Separate tracks or teal synergy? Achieving a closer relationship between education and SD, post-2015. Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 8(2), 89–112. doi: 10.1177/0973408214548360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sue, D. W., Arredondo, P., & McDavos, R. j. (1992). Multicultural counseling competencies/standards: A call to the profession. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 20, 64–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sutherland, W. J., Bellingan, L., Bellingham, J. R., Blackstock, J. J., Bloomfield, R. M., Bravo, M., et al. (2012). A collaboratively-derived science-policy research agenda. PLoS One, 7(3), e31824. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031824.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. The Jamaican Psychological Society. (2015). Jamaican ethical principles of psychologists and counsellors’ code of conduct 2015.Google Scholar
  50. The Nuremberg Code. (1947). In: A. Mitscherlich, & F. Mielke (Eds.), Doctors of infamy: The story of the Nazi medical crimes. New York: Schuman, 1949: xxiii-xxv.Google Scholar
  51. The United Nations. (1948). Universal declaration of human rights.Google Scholar
  52. The United Nations. (1989). Convention on the rights of the child. Treaty Series, 1577, 3.Google Scholar
  53. The United Nations. (2015). Transforming our world: The 2030 agenda for sustainable development. A/RES/70/1. Retrieved from Agenda for Sustainable Development web.pdf
  54. The United Nations. (2016). Sustainable development goals report. Retrieved from
  55. UNESCO. (2013). Intercultural competences: Conceptual and operational framework, BSP- 2012/WS/9. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  56. UNESCO. (2014). Roadmap for implementing the Global Action Programme on education for sustainable development. CC-BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO. Retrieved from
  57. UNESCO. (2016a, April). Concept note on the post-2015 education agenda. Document submitted to the 37th Session of the General Conference.Google Scholar
  58. UNESCO. (2016b). Incheon declaration and framework for action: Towards inclusive and equitable quality education and lifelong learning for all. Education 2030, ED-2016/WS/2.Google Scholar
  59. Urofsky, R. I., Engels, D. W., & Engebretson, K. (2009). Kitchener’s principle ethics: Implications for counseling practice and research. Counseling and Values, 53, 67–78. doi: 10.1002/j.2161-007x.2009.tb00114.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ward, S., Bagley, C., Lumby, J., Hamilton, T., Woods, P., & Roberts, A. (2015). What is ‘policy’ and what is ‘policy response’? An illustrative study of the implementation of the leadership standards for social justice in Scotland. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 44(1), 43–56. doi: 10.1177/1741143214558580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Weiss, C. H. (1991). Policy research as advocacy: Pro and con. Knowledge and Policy, 4(1–2), 37–55. doi: 10.1007/bf02692747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Werts, A. B., & Brewer, C. A. (2014). Reframing the study of policy implementation: Lived experience as politics. Educational Policy, 29(1), 206–229. doi: 10.1177/0895904814559247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wilson, K., & Wilks, J. (2013). Research with indigenous children and young people in schools: Ethical and methodological considerations. Global Studies of Childhood, 3(2), 142–152. doi: 10.2304/gsch.2013.3.2.142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Young, K., Ashby, D., Boaz, A., & Grayson, L. (2002). Social science and the evidence-based policy movement. Social Policy and Society, 1(03), 215. doi: 10.1017/s1474746402003068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Counseling and Human Development ProgramJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations