Burundi: Between War and Negative Peace
Bouka offers a much-needed analysis of Burundi’s 2015 crisis as the culmination of the past decade of contentious politics in the country. This chapter examines the post-war governance of the National Council for the Defence of Democracy—Forces for the Defence of Democracy (CNDD-FDD) as it attempted to transition from an armed group to a political party, and how it became an obstacle to democratic consolidation. Bouka also explores the changes and continuity in the use of violence by political actors since the end of the war. This chapter concludes with an assessment of regional and international peace efforts and points to specific missed opportunities that have facilitated Burundi’s backsliding into authoritarianism.